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Manuscripts - ND Oral History Collection - 10157 - Stutsman County

Stutsman County

Region 7
1 Charles E. and Idane Brady, Pingree
2 Ralph Ehlers, Edmunds
3 Orville E. Harrison, Edmunds
4 Ben Walsh, Courtenay
5 Oria Barnick, Jamestown
6 Eva Plunkett and Mrs. Ernest Young, Jamestown
7 C.L. Robertson, Jamestown
8 Mrs. B. H. Kroeze, Jamestown
9 H. W. Anderberg, Jamestown
10 Magdalena Thomas and Paul Kufferschmidt, Jamestown
11 Mary E. Stott, Montpelier
12 H. W. “Herb” Lyons, Jamestown
13 Ted and Ralph Williams, Cleveland
14 William Kapp, Medina
15 Israel Dammel, Medina
16 Nelle Eissinger and G.A. Eissinger, Medina
17 S. Anne Preszler, Medina
18 Katie Becker, Streeter
19 Emma O. Stokes, Streeter
20 Marshal (M.W.) Taylor, Woodworth
21 Dr. S.W. Melzer, Woodworth
22 A.L. and Hattie Lueck, Edmunds
23 Rose Waychik, Jamestown
24 Mary Cusator, Jamestown
25 Joseph Johnson, Jamestown
26 Ralph Scott, Jamestown
 1 (A) Mary Young Collection

Portions of the following interviews pertain to Stutsman County:
Edith Szarkowski, #12, Burleigh County
Gilbert and Pearl Wick, #6, Kidder County
Lee Markham, #11, Kidder County

Tape #1
Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. Brady (Pingree)(Foster County)
000 – Introduction
021 – (His) nationality; Becomes a citizen of ND; Birthplace; Family history; First opinion of ND
149 – Doctor at Jamestown; Buffalo herds; Family bible; House that father build; Description of pictures
257 – Early neighbors; Other towns; Nationalities
357 – More nationalities; An early Pingree family; Comments on present young people’s lack of ability to cope with problems the homesteaders did; An early Pingree family; More comments on present young people’s lack of ability to cope with early ND
440 – Early day life at Courtenay; Depot is used as a church; Compares differences between early and present churches; Other towns; More comments on religious changes
537 – Comments on ways and means of present day progress; Anecdote about a Christmas card that was given to him; Other towns; Becomes married; Early Pingree businesses; Commercialized businesses changes North Dakota way of life
635 – Comments on the lack of elderly people being up-to-date; Presence and order of early towns
727 – Pingree’s losses – other than commercial; Comments about music and choir; Carrington’s’ original abstract; Land is allocated to railroad
805 – Blizzard of 1888; Lost people finding their way during this blizzard; Horses finding refuge near a haystack during a storm
936 – Continuation of the anecdote; Prairie fires; An 1894 prairie fire
025 – (His) father’s homestead location; Crossing the river from Jamestown to Pingree; Houses the Charles lived in as a child and the growth of the family; Description of a trundle bed; Soo Line Railroad passes through Courtenay; A store opens in Courtenay
125 – Anecdote about Charles getting a “spanking”; (His) father’s stove fuel – Pennsylvania coal; The song “Dakota Land”; Family social life
213 – Plays the mouthorgan; Buys a violin; Anecdote about being given a violin and having it stolen; (His) various jobs; Works with WPA; Success at farming; Sells farm; Old Congregational Parish as their present home
636 – Businesses from Pingree’s successful years; Anecdote about a horse trader; Working with a walking plow; Other businesses
785 – Location of old businesses; New school
866 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview describes Pingree during its various growth stages; One topic our listeners will find more outstanding than many others is the Blizzard of 1888.

Tape #2 Ralph Ehlers (Edmunds)
000 – Introduction
021 – Red Trail (old Highway 10); Story about camping on an Indian’s ground; A flood at Sheridan, Wyoming; Works for Holly Sugar Company
110 – Ralph’s work at Holly Sugar; Childish pranks at Holly Sugar; Family history; Birthplace; Corn is raised commercially; A SD man trades a team of horses and harnesses for land
213 – Wheat crop losses; Landlord and tenant payment arrangements; Flood comes into area; Story about moving cattle across creek; (Father) landlord raises rent; Moving into a tarpaper shack
305 – First opinion of North Dakota; Gopher hunting; Comparison of ND and SD speed of improvement; Fences come into area; Townships made responsible for care of roads
392 – Good and bad crop years; Wild oats enters area; Commonality of summer fallowing; Coments about wild oats; A new mill is introduced; Methods of controlling wild oats
492 – Amount of land that (father) buys; Terms of buying land; Amount of land contained in a homestead and an average farm size; Relates dislike of German indoctrination and methods of punishment
580 – Reasons for (father) coming to US; Comments on ruling classes in Germany; Subjects taught in German schools
660 – Early ND neighborliness; Church’s role in early ND life; Difference in ND and SD clannish nationalities; Large church groups
744 – Nationalities; The meaning of fencing one’s land; A township pawnmaster’s responsibilities
882 – Description of a township shack; Distance included in circle of friends
926 – Distance included in circle of friends; Distances to Melville and Pingree; Reasons for small towns being located where they were; Early Edmunds businesses and churches; Description of early hotel operations; Standard working man’s hours; Compares Edmunds size to that of Melville and Pingree; Creameries in Edmunds and area towns
014 – Pingree’s short order restaurant; Standard meal constituents; Early Edmunds businessmen; Store credit; Difficult times in 1918 and 1922; Works for Montgomery Ward
114 – His work at Wards; Works in Iowa; Becomes involved with law force
227 – Events at a recruiting office; Travels to Montana; Auto breaks down; Jumps a freight; A train accident
340 – Stopping at Glendive; An incident of shooting pack rats; Obtaining repair parts for car and repairing the car
453 – Comes back to ND and farms; ND bankruptcy days; Ralph is foreclosed by Bank of North Dakota
546 – Quackgrass comes back into ND; Buying varieties of oats (Swedish Select, Green Russian); Describes 1932-36 as being bad years; His source of income during those years
625 – Description of a milk cart; Amount and kinds of railroad service; “The Galloping Goose”; Railroad loses mail contracts; Passenger service
662 – Formation of the co-op; First combine comes into area; A neighbor’s cost and profit of a crop; Farmers Union strength
729 – Information about forming of co-op
848 – End of Tape A
000 – Introduction
005 – Formation of co-op; Deciding the manager of elevator; Elevator is purchased by Buchanan Elevator; Comments on Buchanan Elevator
092 – Political comments in connection with formation of co-ops; Ralph serves as Grain Terminal Board of Director
157 – Source of Farmers Union decisions; Farmers Union structure of organization; Comments on NFO
254 – Movement of large corporations into ND; Corruption and other comments on US and ND government
371 – Levels of social classes; NPL strength; Co-op adopts NPL views
437 – Grain motives for establishing an elevator; Coal and gas development as motives for NPL or new political movement; Ralph’s opinion of ND use and development of coal
516 – Opinion of William Langer; North Dakota Mill and Bank of North Dakota usefulness; Incidents of Farm Holiday Association preventing foreclosure
646 – Time as being the cause of radicalism and what is not radical
666 – His family’s opinion of state
714 – Works for uncle at Nebraska; Corn peddlers; Wildlife; Fowl
808 – CCC builds islands for fowl; Deer prevalence; Prairie chickens; Ducks and geese; Pheasants; Fishing in James River
906 – Fish hatcheries; Helpful farm programs in 20’s and 30’s; Price of load of cattle that he ships; Size of cattle car; Present cattle prices; NDSU and AC schools aid farmers; County agents; NP Railroad and AC school sponsor train car displays
009 – Asking  a professor about purifying water from a cattle water tank
046 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview entails extensive criteria about co-ops.

Tape #3
Orville E. Harrison (Edmunds)(Foster County)
000 – Introduction
021 – Parents come to ND; Family history; Edmunds originates; Railroad comes to Edmunds; Towns along railroad; Former Governor Hanna’s farm; Family history; Opinion of ND
119 – Extent of ND settlement in 1911; Average sized farm; Tractors come in to area; Works with his father; Buys land; Begins farming; 1913-1933 crop conditions; Bonus crop years; Township land is sold for taxes in 30’s; Rust years; Principles of Hard Wheat; Rust years and rust resistant crops
202 – Rents farm; Buys Ford Ferguson Tractor and Plow; Buys land; Begins strip-cropping; Buys more land; 1947 grain prices
297 – Grasshoppers in 30’s; NPL strength; Democratic Party strength; More about NPL; Farmer Holiday Association prevents auction sales; Active association members
384 – William Langer’s popularity; William Lemke; A. C. Townley; Townley’s oil well; Orville joins Farmers Union; Farm Bureau strength; North Dakota farming today
493 – Buys more land; Land sales at Jamestown Courthouse; Prices of land in Foster County
584 – Other comments about buying land; Large scale farming; Irrigation prospects; Farmers Union
684 – Farmers Union is beaten by GTA; Elevator burns; Melville (Elevator); Coal development, gasification, and Basin Electric Cooperative
781 – A man’s greed for more land
926 – Farm Home Administration is an aid to small farmer
943 – End of interview

Tape #4 Ben Walsh (Courtenay)(Wells County)
000 – Introduction
021 – Birthplace; Family history; Nationalities at Harvey; Nationality conflicts; Religious barriers; Homestead location; More family history; Nearby early town
136 – Homestead buildings; A stone house; Nearest rail point; Great Northern Railroad Line; Water supply; Direction of settlement wave; German-Russian path of immigration to Harvey; Early ranch locations and rancher’s names; Conflicts between homesteaders and ranchers
215 – A Harvey rancher is ruined by a winter storm; Bad winters and cattle losses; More about the nationalities and ages of homesteaders; Names of homesteaders near Harvey; Anecdote about a Scottish homesteader and his problems raising sheep; Parents’ opinion of ND; Parents’ jobs
331 – How his father began farming; Farming with oxen; Average size farm; Ben’s education; Description of a day in a country school; Fuel used in the school; School term; Language problems in the school
419 – German-Russian tendency to stay with their language; German-Russian indifference to education; Number of students attending the schools; A teacher’s board and room; Places from which teachers were hired
500 – Lignite coal is a hindrance to teachers; Serves on the school board; Teacher’s wages; Calling off school and how a country gamily was made aware of this knowledge; Bell System comes into area; Switchboard location; Library at the school; A teacher buys books and a case for the school
577 – Water sources for school; School recreational activities; A horse barn at school; Distances that students traveled to attend school; A particular teacher’s walking distance; Length of school term and reasons for not having school at times; Father’s difficulties – served on school board – arousing educational interest from families; The School District and Township area as being one; The indifference of town supervisors to country schools
600 – Traditional events at schools; Social events that were held at school; Social levels of students; 1900-20 crop conditions; Prosperity of Ben’s parents as a child; Parents’ means of livelihood
782 – Father’s crops; Primary churches; Church’s social functions; Seventh-Day Adventist Academy at Harvey; Reasons for Harvey’s prosperity
880 – Elevators at Harvey; Railroad at Harvey; Roundhouse; Flour mill; Creamery; Leading businessmen
000 – Introduction
021 – General store; Other businessmen; German-Russian Jews at Harvey; Names of businessmen; Blacksmiths at Harvey; Banks; A bank branch at Selz and Fessenden
120 – Harvey’s farming marketing area; Great Northern Railroad stops grain shipment to Harvey; Area towns and post offices; Ways that German-Russians did their marketing at Harvey; Ben’s education; Works with father; World War I opinion
209 – 1918 crop conditions; Wheat varieties that were grown; Rust problems; 1900-10 farming expansion; The Tree Claim Law; 20’s and 30’s lack of prosperity; Sources of livelihood in 30’s; Drought; Grasshoppers; Dust storms; People die from the burning of thistles
308 – Livestock die from the dust storms; Morale in 30’s; WPA dam; Fraudulence in surplus commodities
417 – Feeding thistles to cattle; When thistles were cut and how they were prepared; Blind pigs; Bootleggers
517 – Grain home brew; Whiskey running; Bootlegging routes; Bootlegger trial justice; Prohibition failure
635 – NPL strength; NPL farmer percentage at its peak; Minority Democratic Party; Opinion of William Langer as an orator
742 – Political emotionality; Farmer Holiday Association activity; 1910 presidential popularity; Inventions that changed lifestyle of ND
835 – Horse power and threshing machines; Cook car cook’s duties; Sleeping arrangements; Crew fun and type of crew laborers
947 – Baseball; Area town rivalry; Chautauqua Circuit; Opera House; Visiting theater companies; Movie theater reputations; Dances; Musicians
905 – IWW activity; Types of hobos; “Hobo Jungle”
063 – Saturday night and Sunday activity at Harvey; Visiting in the early days; Radio’s effect upon family life; Radio stations
165 – Farmers Union and cooperative movements; Power Plant; REA come into area; Catalog ordering
277 – Names of magazines; Newspapers; Gypsies; Watkins and Ward salesmen; Tree; Lightning and Hail Insurance peddlers
398 – Livery barn; Horse trading
427 – End of interview
Comment:  Ben Walsh had a very good memory.  He commented extensively on a wide variety of 1900 North Dakota topics.  One of the more outstanding short topics is the information about the area in which a sizable group of Seventh-Day Adventists settled.

Tape #5 Oria Barnick (Jamestown)(LaMoure County)
000 – Introduction
021 – Family history; Comes to ND; Opinion of ND; Siblings; Education; Works for brother; Milwaukee Railroad; Sod houses; Nationalities; German language in school presents problems
112 – Teaches school; Closest town to school; Name of school district; Country school teaching problems; Her first wages; Keeping a fire in school during winter (lignite coal); Burning cow chips; Names of schools in district; Number of students in the school; Discipline problems; Parent-teacher relations; Students stay home from school to help at home
210 – The school term; Textbooks; School building is used for basket socials; Dances and religious events; Attendance rules; School day routine; Becomes married; (Husband) family history; (Brother) pioneer doctor; Story about trapping a badger
302 – (Brothers) rent out land; Begins farming; First crops; Description of their farm; Move from Jud to Millarton; Millarton land description; Children; Providing for the family; Utilizing flour sacks; Catalog ordering; Traveling salesmen; Watkins; Wars and Sealeys products; Salesmen’s mode of travel
417 – Fishing in James River; Past and present sociability compared; Cards and Checkers games; Compares past visiting ways to present; Dances in general; (Husband) musical ability; Lawrence Welk performs in area; Social acceptance of dancing; The Modern Woodmen organization
529 – Farm and businessman communication; Where people did their shopping; Farm wife’s means of providing for family; Canning and keeping vegetables through winter; Canning pickles in a crock; Preparing sauerkraut in crocks
629 – Years lived on each farm; Nortonville depression years; Gardening in 30’s; Army worms; Grasshoppers; Millarton people leave in 30’s; Size of family
729 – Size of family; Midwives deliver Oria’s children; Midwives; First child is born; 1918 Influenza Epidemic; Home remedies
823 – Whooping cough; Area towns; Catalog ordering; Traveling by car; Roads; Variation in towns’ prices; 1906-1940 entertainment changes; Baseball; Socializing
901 – Churches; Moves to Jamestown; Midland Railroad and present Highway 281 is built; Nortonville Gravel pit; Hamburger stand; Begins grocery store; Churches; Other businesses
969 – Small towns begin failing; Jud (town) originates; Reasons for towns failing
005 – NPL comments; Serves as Clerk of Farmers Union; Comment about William Frazier; William Langer; A. C. Townley; William Lemke; Farmer Holiday Association activity; Joins Farmers Union; Women’s Suffrage activity; Family life changes; Family life activity in teens and 20’s; Changes in women’s’ patience; Babysitters
117 – Electricity; REA; Telephone; Millarton line; Switchboard Exchange location
141 – Laundry facilities; Maytag washer; Farm machinery; Hay for cattle; WPA projects; Opinion of ND and politics
229 – Prairie fires; Tornadoes
318 – Wildlife and fowl population; Custom threshing
422 – Butchering meat with neighbors; Smokehouses and fuel
449 – End of interview
Comment:  Interview covers a variety of 1900 topics.  Oria’s replies are short and to the point.  One of the more outstanding topics is the discussion of country schools.

Tape #6 Eva Plunkett and Ms. Earnest Young (Jamestown)(Ransom County)
000 – Introduction
024 – (Eva) birthplace; Family history; Comes to Jamestown; Education; Family history; (Grandfather) Amusement Center; Sheldon bottomless well; Finishes education and travels back to Sheldon; The Academy; (Mother) works at Jamestown; Doctor Wink (1882 female doctor)
138 – Boats on James River; Works for Alert Newspaper; Other Jamestown newspapers; Alert Newspaper sells to Sun Newspaper; Works for Stutsman County Democrat; Daily and weekly newspapers; Jamestown Capital burns
208 – Story of how Eva was informed that the war was over; Associated Press city source; Calls city officials and notifies them of end of war; Parade
275 – Attends business college; Begins working for Alert Newspaper; Comments on having few women in working force; Collegiate Newspaper is printed by Alert
329 – Eva is in Little Broom Brigade that met survivors of the Spanish-American War; Alert working hours; Paperboys; Her “scooping” competition; The Capital (weekly and daily); Kind of paper that the Democrat was
400 – Democrat Party strength; Area served by weekly and daily Alert; Alert newspaper working methods; Alert wages
505 – Approves signature of civic center; (Ms. Young) mentions items from Kellogg’s collection; A reading from the School Election of 1890; A reading about Doctor Wink from a book written by Mrs. Correll
565 – 1918 Influenza Epidemic; (Eva) has Typhoid Fever and has her hair cut off; 1918 Jamestown Police Chief; (Ms. Young) comes to live with Eva; Relates experiences with Mr. Kellogg
674 – Comments about Doctor Wink; Mr. Kellogg’s silverware
739 – End of interview
Comment:  Eva’s interview is rather short; A listener will notice a note of lack of cooperation from Eva.  She was not purposely uncooperative, but her age and memory prevented her from being otherwise.  She does offer us some informative material about Jamestown newspapers.

Tape #7 C. L. Robertson (Jamestown)(Morton County)
000 – Introduction
021 – Birthplace; A tarpaper shack; Family history; Breaking a wild horse; Anecdote about one of his father’s horses; Father’s first two horses; Anecdote about this father’s mare
209 – A particular quarter of land that his father wanted when he worked on the railroad; Burning cordwood for kitchen range fuel; Anecdote about a lost dog; A German settlement; The year that his father filed
265 – Early old timers; Nationalities; First school that C. L. attended; Mother teaches school; Moves into town; Relates what happens to father’s homestead buildings; Names of area ranchers; Description of soil in this area; Methods of preparing soil for planting
342 – Father’s Tree Claim; First windbreak in area; Description of the prairie in the early days and items that were found on the prairie
401 – Cowboys; Some experiences of a cowboy; Father buys livery stable; Anecdote about a man selling trees
485 – Moving into a house in town; Lumberyard owner; Father’s Blue Barn Livery & Corral
549 – Doctors; Nearest town; Soo Line Railroad is built; Land description of early Lake Agassiz in area and problems hauling lumber through it; Lack of brakes on wagons; Road conditions
651 – Lumber route; Wheat Line – part of Soo Line Railroad; Blacksmith; Omemee originates; Bottineau; Soo Line Railroad is built up in area
695 – Transportation to college at Grand Forks; First high school graduate in county; Commonality of college attendance
811 – Working for a man taking care of horses; His wages; Cost of a college education; A gift from a bank; Works for a neighbor; Works at stack threshing
009 – Building threshing stacks; Threshing from a stack for a neighbor; Various means of transportation to the university; C.L.’s educational funds; His brother’s and sister’s education and professional careers
136 – Heads of Departments while attending the university; His major at school; A particular Thanksgiving dinner at school; Meeting Doctor Libby’s family; Doctor Libby’s collection of Indian culture; Doctor Libby’s physique; “Flunking” a test in Dr. Libby’s class
242 – C. L.’s college roommate; Breaking a wagon axle while traveling to school; Comments about Maxwell Anderson; Jim Hill and Elliot – President of the Northern Pacific Railroad
365 – Commonality of beards on men; UND fraternities originate; C .L. is elected associate editor of paper; Name of editor of paper; Comments about Erickstad and R.W. Wenzel – lawyers; George Schafer’s political involvement while attending UND; Comments about J. F. T. O’Connor
514 – Literary societies as being main kind of social life; C .L. breaks his leg; Basketball at UND
715 – UND basketball; Teaches at Hebron; Salaries; Teaching at Hebron
930 – Closing of schools; Enrollment increases; Hebron rents various buildings for school; Revamping a brickyard
988 – C. L. is married; Works with Mercantile Store; Hebron Germans stock up store supplies during outbreak of World War I
046 – NPL graduate from university; William Langer’s political beginning at Morton County; C. L.’s political affiliation with Lynn J. Frazier
141 – Opinion of Langer, Frazier, and Townley as orators; Works with Hebron Election Board Anecdote about taking election returns to Mandan
210 – Military service; Works as High School Inspector and Examiner; Minnie J. Nielson and C. L. work with Langer
310 – Borrows money from Langer; Types letters for Governor Nestos; Opinion of exemplary politicians and others
436 – End of interview
Comment:  C. L.’s interview covers a large area of educational system background.

Tape #8
Ms. B. H. Kroeze (Jamestown)
000 – Introduction
023 – Comes to ND; Her education; Meets husband
138 – Comes to Jamestown; Husband works as President of College; Description of college in 1909; Decision to remain at Jamestown; Her travels; Husband’s years as president and his death; College presidents since husband’s death; 1909 college enrollment; Ability to raise money for college
245 – Raising funds for the college; Doctor Kroeze’s first year’s wages
304 – Financial problems of small colleges; Organized Presbyterian Church aids college financially; Endowment Fund; Memorial Library; Tabor Hall
404 – Husband’s full name; College funding difficulties; College housing construction; Student location sources; Doctor’s other work responsibilities
519 – College behavior rules; Gathering student enrollment; Student scholarships; College attitude atmosphere during 30’s; Town and college relationship
604 – City college funding; College closes; Reasons for staying at Jamestown; College campus; Student room and board; Student enrollment size; Plans for a larger college
720 – A student dance; School disciplinary rules; Chapel rules
824 – Student body composition changes; 1909 enrollment size; Some of Doctor Kroeze’s responsibilities; Electricity and heating
929 – Guest speakers; Doctor Kroeze’s preaching area; Staff increases; 1918 Influenza Epidemic
978 – World War I ROTC at the college; Women’s Suffrage; Equal Rights Amendment; Mother’s education, personality
101 – Morality changes; Friendliness changes
149 – Building college on hill; Library location
192 – Long life attributes
247 – End on interview
Comment:  This interview largely envelops Jamestown College discussion.

Tape #9 H. W. Anderberg (Jamestown)
000 – Introduction
024 – Early movie stars; Early theater in Jamestown
083 – Family history
107 – Anderberg wins river pollution suit against city in 1927
135 – Family history; Anderbergs come to Jamestown in 1903; Braking up land
217 – Nationalities; Anecdote about Langer
360 – Anderberg’s suit; How water was being polluted
444 – Discrimination against farmers by merchants
476 – Political education; Original member of NPL
518 – History of formation of Farmers Holiday Association; Confronting state officials at Bismarck
835 – Jamestown installs modern sewage disposal unit following Anderberg’s suit
904 – How Anderberg became member of NPL
931 – SIDE TWO
931 – Comments on A. C. Townley as great “platform man”
979 – Downfall of NPL
100 – Taxes of banks
164 – Why Henry became involved in politics; Social change
248 – Heasley affair
394 – Gerald Nye
421 – Comments on Bill Langer
786 – Henry Linden and Bill Langer
000 – Introduction
020 – Comments on Henry Linden
030 – Langer leaves NPL
076 – Usher Burdick and A. C. Townley
106 – Split between town and arm people
125 – Organizing
143 – “Free love” issue used against NPL; IVA Red Flame and NPL Leader
188 – Comments on Charlie Talbott; Farmers Union; Glenn Talbott
255 – Interaction between Farmers Union and NPL
265 – Gorman King; P. W. Lanier; Dave Kelly; Charlie Tighe; Bob Vogel
004 – 1921 Recall Election; IVA propaganda; NPL supported organizations; Crash of land values and Farm Loan Bonds; Hail Insurance Department originates; Funds are transferred from Hail Insurance to Bond Interest Fund – Langer, L. B. Hanna, Frank Vogel
104 – Past and present political scrutiny; Petition signature forgeries; Bank petitions and petition gathering; False signature
225 – Henry Linden and Langer relationship; Buying into the stock market
345 – Comments about Henry Linden; A letter about William Guy concerning imprisonment of Linden’s son
440 – H.W.’s political disillusionments; Past and present state skullduggery; Present Bank of North Dakota exceptional profits
482 – Comments about Robert McCarney as being a front man for a group of people; Animosity between McCarney and Bill Guy; Comments about McCarney’s political affiliations
532 – Helps to organize Farmers Union; Charley and Glenn Talbott; Linden leaves the Union; Movers into Home Township; Linden’s son works with Township Supervisor; Political unrighteousness
653 – Political honest – A. C. Townley; Usher Burdick; Hank Williams accumulates information before legislative election; Present-day lobbyist legislative lists; A Graduated Tax Bill on chain stores; Legislative bills halted by bribes
772 – Prominent people hold up courts; Minot Bank; Humphrey; Guy; Mark Andrews comments on state entering meat business; State Hospital retainers – Jenroth, Nathing, Helge Johannson, Bill Guy, Ottmer
907 – Jenroth’s State Hospital retainer stopped; Affidavits of Prostitution at Minot Bank; Anti-corruption Law; Political charges against Helge Johannson; FBI investigation of William Guy; Watergate conflict; H.W. meets with Judge (Lynch) concerning Helge Johannson and Bill Guy
091 – Present Governor Link’s decision to seek office; Mark Andrews nonsupport for Larson; Comments about Governor Link’s starting budget and coal development legislation; Comments about Arthur Link and William Guy working with each other
195 – Robert McCarney, Henry Linden, and Jim Roth collaborate against William Guy; Comments about Henry Linden as a political operator
225 – Recollections of John Moses; County Committee jobs; Farmers choose their leaders; Ray Snelz livestock industry contribution; Political opposition to farmer appointed offices; Gus Geisler office removal; Pete Zapas congressional endorsement
435 – Pete Zapas controls early Democratic strength; Zapas business interests; Mrs. Zapas elected postmistress
534 – Red Brittner (woman orator)
631 – Glen Talbott and H.W. communication in relation with Farmers Union; Wild oats thrives in ND
764 – Nonregistered chemicals; Use of carbide and chemicals against wild oats; Environmental control
828 – End of interview
Comment:  H.W.’s political interests and activities were wide and varied during the early 1900’s in ND and therefore, few political topics from that time are not discussed or touched upon.

Tape #11 Mary E. Stott (Montpelier)
000 – Introduction
025 – Comes to ND; Family nationality; Family history; Works at telephone office and carries mail; Father works as Marion mail carrier
078 – Early Montpelier stores; Montpelier originates; Nationalities; Comes to Montpelier; Becomes married; Area community comparisons; Nationalities; Early 1900 family finances; Food economizing
155 – Barn dances; Traveling to a dance; Distance to school; Flat iron description; Dance musicians; Card parties; Attends dances; Past and present social behavior compared
214 – Family history; Becomes married; Husband’s history; Operates store; More about her husband; Description of early and present Montpelier; Store credit problems; Files bankruptcy in 20’s; Sources of money lost in bankruptcy; Other businessmen and banks
307 – Banks fail; Early Montpelier traffic; Another grocery store; Means of grocery stocking
354 – Sewing and sewing pattern; Store working hours; Town increases its size; Travels to Jamestown in 20’s and 30’s; Extent of use of railroad; Early railroad reputation
432 – Montpelier congeniality; Present school and teachers; Woodman Lodge; Odd Fellow Lodge; Workman’s Lodge; Woodman’s Hall; Churches; Ma and Pa Dancing Club; Movies; A medicine show
532 – Electricity; Generating plant; Telephones
627 – Population decreases; Religion of Belgians; Religious belief communication
702 – End of interview

Tape #12 H. W. “Herb” Lyons (Jamestown)(Cass County)
000 – Introduction
025 – Comes to ND; Works in Kenmare; Gambling; Prostitution; Elevator business; Marketing area; Great Northern branch of railroad
110 – Early transportation to Minot; Works at Grand Forks and Kenmare; A well behind Kenmare Hotel; A typical marketing day
165 – “Papa Tom” Pool Hall; Pyrees Restaurant at Fargo; Working at Grand Forks; Early “open” ND
220 – Kemare churches; An old fire engine; House of Prostitution; Water conditions; Time spent at Grand Forks; Moves to Fargo; Auto commonality; Red Trail Highway
302 – Travels by rail to California; Railroad meal service; Sharing food with two women; Chauffeurs in California; Events of a horse shipped West and used to haul liquor; A Ladies Aid meeting during prohibition; Comments about two men that hauled liquor; Professor Bolley’s son at Fargo is lost
421 – H. W.’s opinion of Fargo Agricultural College objectives and accomplishments; Moves to Fargo; Has his beginning in auto business; An auto accident incident; The Blacks of Black Building buy a car; First Automobile Show at Fargo
532 – Description of Fargo North Broadway pavement while he was there; First National Bank President’s son fined when selling milk
605 – Early Fargo businessmen; Large hotel locations
000 – Introductions
020 – Prostitution at Fargo; Negros at Fargo; Red Light District at Fargo; Prostitution at Moorhead; Working with Doctor E.M. Darrow; Anecdotes while working with the doctor; Grandfree Lecture Course
190 – Anecdote about Helen Keller running on open land; H. Keller speaks at Fargo; More about Grandfree Lecture Course
224 – Liquor brought from Minnesota to North Dakota; Women’s Suffrage; Emotionalism; German-Russian opposition and status of women
309 – A Bowman friend of Doctor Darrow; A minister to Indians west of the river
360 – Moves to Jamestown; Population; Railroad system conditions; Road conditions; Auto dealership prosperity; Economic conditions; More about road conditions (Jamestown, Valley City, building up Highway 10, road to Eldridge)
460 – Jamestown farmer’s social status; Banker and farmer relationship; Prominent businessmen; Banks
572 – H.W.’s business finances in 30’s; Works for Harry Miller (trick roper); Begins his business; Good and bad business years
650 – Early Jamestown family settlers fjord the Sheyenne River; Begins his dealership; Dam built at Arrowhead Lake outlet; County promoters of water; “Peanut brittle dams”; 1933 effort to build dam on Missouri River; Fort Peck Dam introduced
810 – Garrison Diversion High Level Debate
900 – Sells business; Becomes interested in water problems
931 – Reasons for water problems; Bald Hill and Jamestown Dam construction; A 1951 flood; Jamestown Dam funds; Wildlife Department opposition to dam; 1968 flood of James River
025 – Setting up a rock as entrance to County Park; Funding for Peck and Jamestown Dams
078 – Early college and city relationship status; Anecdote about Kroeze obtaining college funds from Jim Hill; Carious large funders of the college; City confidence in college; College salaries in 30’s; Early and present student source area; Tuition fees for out of state students
184 – Opinion of present legislature and Republican Party; Comments about John Davis and William Guy Election; Bribery of Federal Inspector during construction of highway north of Jamestown
278 – Political comments about Lynn J. Frazier, Milton Young, William Langer, Nye; H.W. advises Nye during his election
419 – Political comments about William Lemke (Attorney General); Opinion of NPL; NPL (State Mill & Elevator, Bank of North Dakota, Insurance Department); NPL builds Lemke’s house at Fargo; Bank of North Dakota checks become difficult to cash
479 – Political comments about Don Short, Omdahl, Nygaard, Mark Andrews, Quentin Burdick, Milton Young, William Guy
513 – Mail service removed; Railroad branch lines lack passenger service; Shipping freight by truck and rail; Railroads leave small towns
545 – Population prediction
645 – H.W. receives award for work in water source development
720 – Reasons for disappearances and thriving of towns; Success of farms buying on crop payments basis from Real Estate Company; Reasons for present-day large farms; Comments about shelter belts
Comment:  H.W.’s interview envelops a wide circle of informative 1900 topics.  Prostitution, wide variety of water development topics in which Herbert was influential, carious railroad topics, early auto industry, Dr. E.M. Darrow’s work, outstanding Women’s Suffrage topics, road, Fort Peck and Jamestown Dam construction, Jamestown College funding and extensive political comments about politicians and political programs.

Tape #13 Ted and Ralph Williams (Cleveland)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Homestead place; Nationalities; More family history; More about nationalities; Open range; A large sheepherding ranch
104 – Kinds of homestead buildings; Freighting source of lumber for buildings; Old post offices and distributing point; Midland continental Railroad area route; Area towns; Streeter Branch of NP Railroad route; Homesteader marketing towns; Large cattle ranches; Ranchers ship cattle together; Cattle buyers; Windsor and Cleveland cattle yards; Driving sheep to Jamestown; Coyotes molest sheep; Hunting coyotes
216 – Trapping coyotes; Sheep dogs; Homesteader and rancher friendliness with each other; Wild fowl; Whooping cranes; Prairie chickens
279 – Neighbors; School location; School term; Getting to school
309 – Dances; Church services at schoolhouse; Getting a minister; Dance musicians; Compares past and present sociality; Marketing towns; Hauling grain to Windsor storekeeper; Cleveland business district; Mail route originates; Distance of southern towns; Hauling railroad materials from Windsor; Wagon trail passes their homestead
405 – Hauling railroad ties from Windsor; Railroad laborers; Railroad labor livestock; Sources of horses for homesteaders; Farms 2000 acres with horses; Price of land; Early crop conditions; First crop on sod; Breaking sod; Buffalo grass is used for feeding
498 – Picture description of farm buildings; Water supply; House build in 1914; Source of electricity and Wyndmere inventor in 1915; Installation of Hot Water Furnace
566 – Imported horse breeding stock; Marketing wood; Sheep shearers; Picture description of boys with pony, dog sled, siblings, front yard, buildings, cutting Hard Wheat and gangplow
666 – Reasons, method, and use of sweet clover; Comments about a steam threshing engine
764 – John Alexander (steam engine knowledgeable); Reasons for steam engines being difficult to use; Machinery methods of cutting grass; Homemade stackers; Stacking sweet clover
845 – 1825 engine on public railroad; Oil Pull Engine; Case and Rumely Tractors; Getting an International Combine
922 – Operating an International Combine; Hauling stock with Dodge Truck; Description of first auto; Other makes of cars      
002 – Brothers farm together; 1910-11 financial conditions; Family farms the better part of township
048 – Financial conditions in 30’s; Drought; Dust storms; Hay with cactus for cattle in 30’s; People leave county; Banks fail
087 – Father’s business education and how he began farming; Grandfather’s farming location
141 – Raising sheep; Good crop years; Raising spelts; Fishing in a nearby fish pond
187 – Interest in politics; Raising livestock in 30’s; 1930-31 crops and prices; Storing grain and selling for seed; Grain storage capacity; Reasons for raising sweet clover; Comments about father’s benevolence
265 – Jewish clothing businessman aids family financially; Burning kerosene lamps before electricity; Radiator installed in 1914; Present water source; Raising experimental grain varieties
323 – Marcus Wheat introduced; Weed problems; Prairie fires; A particularly bad fire (1890’s); Plowing range breaks; Midwives
408 – Gardening; Homemade butter; Selling products to Cleveland and Jamestown grocery stores; “Due Bills”; Curing meat; Keeping a slaughtered sheep fresh; Burying meat in grain for storage
475 – Cooking for threshing crews; Getting crews for threshing; Uncle builds house; Begin using 110 volt electricity; REA and telephone comes into area
567 – End of interview
Comment:  The Williams family was a very progressive and successful farming family.  Topics of particular interest include the area of land that they farmed with horses, a 1915 Wyndmere source of electricity inventor, early installation of a Hot Water Furnace, early raising of sweet clover for fertilizer, an exceptionally good house radiator system installed in 1915, a bad 1890’s prairie fire and Due Bills which were given in exchange for produce to be used to purchase items from other stores.

Tape #14 William Kapp (Medina)
000 – Introduction
020 – Comes to ND; Forms partnership with brother; Woodman’s Lodge is formed; Works with section crew on railroad; Section crew board and room costs
092 – First impression of ND; Past and present neighborliness; Buys relinquishment; Problems William meets locating his homestead; A circus train accident
231 – A neighbor’s horse falls into a well; “Squatters Rights”; Building and buying homestead buildings
336 – Water resources; Saving a horse; Destruction of buildings and livestock lost in 1906 prairie fire
540 – Nationalities Neighborliness anecdote; Baseball; Lack of present day neighborliness
625 – People aid each other after prairie fire of 1906; Plowing firebreaks; Distance covered by this prairie fire; Fire cause
694 – Early year crop conditions
699 – William’s first crop; Threshes at Carrington; Establishing credit; Works with a neighbor; Borrows money
795 – 1910-16 crop conditions; Rents land; 1918 crop fails by hail; Breaking outfits; Custom plowing
851 – Gets married; 1918 Influenza Epidemic; Doctors; Land area owned by William; Raising spelts; Coyotes; Comments about adjusting to ND; Travels back to Ohio
938 – Travels to Oregon and Minnesota; Buys land; Builds house; Financial and crop conditions in 20’s; Bad depression years in 30’s
045 – Grasshopper years; Grasshopper poison; Dust storms; Hay and feed for cattle in 30’s; Feeding cattle Russian Thistles; Buying and selling oats at a loss; Granary
147 – Hay shipped in from Red River Valley and Minnesota; Government buys cattle; William works as appraiser; Prices; Shipping point; WPA projects (Medina Memorial Hall, Graveling roads, Highway 10); William works with WPA
238 – Republican Party and NPL strength; Opinion of A. C. Townley as an orator; Townley’s oil well; Townley speaks in this area; Political emotionality; IVA activity; William Langer supporters
366 – Comments about political ability of North Dakota politicians
Comment:  One outstanding topic of particular interest in this interview is a 1906 prairie fire that covered a distance from Bismarck to Eldridge.

Tape #15 Isral Dammel (Medina)
000 – Introduction
020 – Comes to ND; Route to United States; Family history; Reasons for leaving Russia; Parents first impression of ND; Family history; Isral begins farming
114 – More about Isral getting his beginning in farming; Homestead land; Isral’s beginning livelihood sources; Gets married; His wife; Isral’s education; Begins breaking land; Nationalities; Early neighbors; Homestead buildings; Builds sod house and frame house; Compares differences between houses
224 – First furniture; Learning to keep house at home; Nearest towns; Farming with oxen; Early crop conditions; Crop conditions in 30’s; Hay and feed for livestock; Government buying of cattle; Feeding Russian Thistles; Isral’s finances in 30’s
330 – People leave in 30’s; Wild fowl that prevailed in area; Rabbits become ill in 30’s; Rabbits for meals; Hunting wild fowl; Buying land in 30’s; Grasshoppers; Black Rust; Drought; Water source; Kind of water; Prairie fires
435 – Neighborliness; Card parties; Dances; Church in sod houses; Circuit minister; Religions
500 – Moves into town; Sources of lighting on farm; REA in area; Windmill for pumping water; Radio (battery, wind charger); Compares radio and television benefits; Telephone system
562 – Buying tractors; Raising horses
555 – Threshing machines; Compares using a Header and a Binder; Horse-drawn corn planters
709 – Going without shoes and overshoes (1898); Blizzards; Details of moving to ND; Sewing Doctors; Midwives; 1918 Influenza Epidemic
839 – NPL strength; Farmers Union in area; Events of men murdering a railroad man in jail; William Langer’s speaking ability; Farmer Holiday Association
940 – Neighbors dislike Isral
002 – Methods of providing income in 20’s and 30’s; Flour mills; Burning cow chips, lignite coal, and buffalo bones for fuel; Lignite Coal source; Vegetable source; Preserving pickles; Meat storage
107 – Removing salt from pork; Removing sour taste from sauerkraut; Storing milk and butter; Selling butter; Placing a rock inside of butter balls and sugar to sell
177 – End of interview

Tape #16 Nelle Eissinger and G.A. Eissinger (Medina)
000 – Introduction
020 – (Nelle) Family history; Comes to ND; Homestead location and buildings; First impression of ND; More family history; Dances
104 – Education; Types of students at Valley City; Begins teaching; Teaching salary; Board and room costs; Rural school discipline problems; Stays with families; Parent cooperation
178 – Nationalities; Teaching English to Germans; German Reform Church location; German social beliefs; World War I sentiment; Lignite as being “the curse of the rural school”; Home priority to school; Attendance regulations; County Superintendent supervision; School exercises; Teacher-student relations; Social events; Library; Finances
382 – Gets married; Her husband; Places lived after marriage; Wheat prices in 20’s; Banks fail; 30’s financial conditions; Builds house; Rust causes crop failure; Better years follow 30s; Hail Belt; Grasshoppers; Grasshopper poison; Dust storms; Chaslip Township loses total population
506 – Autos; REA and telephones come into area; Telephone Exchange; 1918 Influenza Epidemic; Home remedies; Doctor
606 – Inland post offices; Mail delivery; Parent’s impression of ND
707 – (G.A.) State Farmers Union is organized; Commonality of German-Russian’s lack of English language; NPL strength; Farmer Holiday Association in area; Townley’s oil well
821 – Political emotionality; Township budget supervision; Serves with Township Board; WPA road and dam projects; Skating rink project; Public opinion of WPA; Tree Planting Project between Valley City and Jamestown
924 – Ways and reasons for working with WPA; Farm modernization programs in 20’s and 30’s; 1938 loan rates; Warehouse grain storage; Effectiveness of County Extension Agents
011 – NP Railroad Demonstration Farms; Agricultural rejections of new methods; Farmers receive incentive payment for agricultural experimentation; Farm traditionalism; Williams family as being early progressive farmers
106 – Cow manure disposal; Future of family farming; Farm efficiency; Diversified and specialized farming; Early income farming; Size of dairy farms
214 – Farmers Union; Farm Bureau; Differences and popularity of the two organizations; Farm Bureau guaranteed payment Feed Grain Program; Comments on government farm incentive; Government subsidization to industry; Medina receives subsidization
311 – End of interview
Comment:  Nelle and G. A. discuss a variety of the informative 1900 subjects

Tape #17   S. Anne Preszler (Medina)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Childhood along James River; Berries along James River; Fishing at James River and Spiritwood Lake; Picnics; Dances
150 – John Baer; Cartoonist for NPL; Speaks at picnic; Anne teaches school; Father’s homestead location; Anne’s education; Mother sells land to Federal Game Reserve; Anne attends college; Father’s NPL political views; Anne marries; Banks fail; Lack of teaching positions; Anne is FDR’s postmaster appointee
252 – Forms of employment; Travels to West Coast; Husband works as District Manager for wine company
316 – Depression in 30’s; Keeping feed for cattle; Horses die; Winter temperatures; She does Red Cross work; Store credit during 30’s; Surplus commodities; Sewing projects
402 – Grasshoppers; Organizations aid people in 30’s; CCC Camps; Bank failures; Soilbank Program; WPA dams
545 – Republican Party seeks votes from immigrants; Selling lumber to immigrants for homesteads; First residents to town
679 – First depot agent; How Medina received its name
711 – Windsor settled before Median; Nationalities; Early school; Early homesteaders; Railroad in area; Nationalities; Dwyer family (father of the town); German-Russian migration
817 – Fires at Medina; Banks fail; Blacksmiths; General businesses; Elevators; Farm Cooperatives; Standby plants; Electricity; Dances; Dentists; Other stores
900 – Reasons for population changes; Prisoners of War and Mexican laborers work with railroad; Registration of letters at post office; Volume of mail handled; Anecdote about Russian plunderage
002 – Anecdotes about Jewish persecution from Germany; Prohibition; “Bootleggers”; Traveling to Fargo to buy beer; More about “Bootleggers”
126 – Highway 10 traffic; Hotels; Radio stations; First teacher at Medina; Compares past and present educational methods; The high school; First postmaster
209 – Homemakers Club and 4-H Clubs are organized; Medina progressiveness; German language replaced by English; Women’s Suffrage; Wilson-Hughes Campaign; Radios; Public communication about Harding dying in office and Coolidge’s Inaugural Address
345 – Women’s Suffrage; Nationality communications; World War I; Pro-German attitudes
Comment:  S. Anne has an excellent memory.  Her recollections about the handling of mail at Medina are one of the more outstanding topics.

Tape #18 Katie Becker (Streeter)
000 – Introduction
021 – Family history; Father’s homestead location; Sod homestead building; Description of sod house; Redoing outside of house
158 – Nationalities; She learns English and her education; Family financial status in early days; Gardening; Raising livestock; Doctors; Midwives; Past and present health standards compared; Home remedies; Comments about abortion
226 – Root cellar for preservation of food; Meat preservation; Water source and condition of water; Selling dairy products; Nearest country store
269 – Childhood home life; A cast iron stove; Hay and corn husk filled mattresses; Feather ticks; Reasons for saying “the good old days”
319 – Social life centers around church; Visiting; Flour mills; Churches; Prairie fires; Nearest towns; Grain markets; Farming with oxen; Prices of horses; Crop failures
418 – Father buys more land; Children’s chores at home; Anecdote about dragging field at Drake; Father hires out for work; She marries; Husband’s family history
521 – Their place of residency after marriage; Children; Sells homestead; Husband dies; 1918 Influenza Epidemic
601 – Livestock prices during depression years; Banks fail; Roosevelt’s New Deal Program; WPA in area; Cream prices; Purposes of hunting rabbits; Raising a family and borrowing funds in 30’s; Working beets at Montana during depression years
710 – Catalog ordering; Sewing; Knitting; Buying sewing patterns; Treadle sewing machines; Purchasing dry goods; Early Streeter stores; Spinning wheel; Preparing wool for spinning; Knitting; Purchasing material purposes; Peddlers; Horse trading; Gypsies; Past and present neighborliness and family togetherness; Visiting
805 – Dances; Card parties; Other social life; Holiday celebrations; Baseball games; Motorcycles; Husband works with WPA; Keeping hay for livestock in 30’s; Cutting thistles for cattle; Government buys livestock; Surplus commodities
903 – Grasshoppers; Feelings of hopelessness during 30’s; Better years; Electricity; Wind chargers; A kerosene stove; REA; Comments about “good old days”; Threshing machines; Custom threshers; Preparing food for threshers; Atmosphere of threshing days; Thresher’s meals
006 – Tying cows for milking; Milking cows in a pasture; Newspapers; Magazines; Revival meetings; Schedule of church services; NPL strength; Comments about William Langer; Buys first car; Husband dies; She gets driver’s license
119 – End of interview
Comment:  Katie has a friendly voice and a good memory.  Some of her topics that are elite to this interview are a good description of a sod house and discussion about preparing wool for spinning.

Tape #19 Emma O. Stokes (Streeter)(Dickey County)
000 – Introduction
036 – Comes to ND; Meets husband; Postmaster at Fullerton; Manages Salt Lake Resort; Husband’s family history; His education; Means other than money that he received for services; Buys land; Buys Salt Lake Resort
150 – Salt Lake Resort is built; Description of buildings; First profits; Tourists; Airplane act; Amusement park activities and medicinal water
245 – Anecdote about a questionable criminal act at Salt Lake; Hunters stay at Salt Lake; Business during 30’s
336 – Midwives; Other doctors; Midwives handling delivery complications; Women deliver their own children; An incidence about the sturdiness of pioneer women; Superstitions; Home remedies
421 – Arrow hunting; Husband’s medical practicing area; Traveling in winter; Office; Contacting patients and livery rig and horses
521 – A landmark house at Fullerton; How Fullerton was built
599 – Early Streeter churches; Nationalities; Dances; Emma reads from a Streeter “golden Jubilee Book”
710 – Continued reading from Jubilee Book; Nationalities at Forbes; Fullerton and Streeter; The Albers family
797 – She meets William Langer; Langer politics; Emma’s political affiliations and support of Langer; Comments about Langer’s North Dakota controversial character and Robert McCarney; Henry Linden; Langer speaks at PTA dinner
897 – Comments about Mike Wallace (writer, Langer’s friend); Comments about Usher and Quentin Burdick and Mark Andrews; Republican Party strength; NPL’s present political activity
005 – Comments about Richard Nixon; Other doctors around the state; 1918 Influenza Epidemic; Burying the epidemic dead; Characteristics of influenza; Other illnesses; A doctor’s wife’s status; Collecting doctor debts
200 – Emma had car accident
273 – Compares religious social beliefs; Language barriers at Streeter
382 – Emma offers to teach a rural school
Comment:  Emma is a doctor’s widow and therefore, this interview discusses medical topics.  Other topics are the Salt Lake Resort and religious social beliefs.

Tape #20 Marshall (M. W.) Tayler (Woodworth)(Dunn County)(Pierce County)
000 – Introduction
020 – Comes to ND; Family history; Small talk about Minnesota; Works in Montana; Various places he lived
166 – Choosing ND as a permanent place to live; Homestead location; Nationalities at McHenry County; His brothers occupations and homesteads
270 – Lives at Forth Berthold Reservation; Moves to New Town; Area is flooded; Comments about strip mining; Securing land for wildlife and farm mineral rights
339 – Early Fort Berthold settlers; Government buys land from Indians; Price of Fort Berthold land; Tree Claims; Preemptions; Rock Claims; Reasons for homesteading on reservation; Father’s homestead and character
444 – Indians and homesteaders living near each other; Marshall has an agreement with an Indian; Befriending Indians; Comments about White settlers damaging Indian property
519 – Anecdotes about selling sheep, pigs, and trading horses with Indians; Indians receive government money; Indians allow shipped cattle to die; He cares for a summer cattle herd
620 – His marriage; Family life and disciplinary measures; More comments about his father
720 – His farming success at Parshall; Earning a living in 30’s; Works with E.L. Elam; Keeping hay for cattle in 30’s; Condition of water; Feeding cattle thistles and cornstalks
814 – Cutting Russian thistles; Feeding cattle straw and alfalfa
834 – NPL strength; Comments about William Langer; A. C. Townley; William Lemke; Lynn J. Frazier; Usher Burdick; Mood and effect of NPL; AAA; Soil Conservation; Summer fallowing; Soil conditions; Custom mowing of hay
910 – Government settlements for land; Working with Mrs. Elam; Grain and dairy products during 30’s; Bad finances in 1910
970 – Meeting a horse thief; Prostitution; Reasons for “good old days”; Dances; Card parties; Commonality of alcohol
080 – Peddlers; M.W. is hospitalized; Past and present public independence; Mother’s comments about her friends’ hospitality; The tractor’s effect in ND; Mowing and raking for neighbor
182 – Livelihood incentive in early days; Breaking sod at Wolford; Predictions for the future
266 – Farm changes in ND; Success of North Dakota farming today; Raising sheep in 30’s; Other comments about farming
414 – End of interview
Comment:  M.W.’s 1900 topics are all informative.  One of the more outstanding topics is early Fort Berthold settlers and Indians and Whites living near each other and working together.

Tape #21 Dr. S. W. Melzer (Woodworth)
000 – Introduction
020 – Comes to ND; His education; Reasons for coming to ND; Establishing his home and office; Surgical practices; House calls; Midwife work presents problems for doctors; Germs and infections; A nursing home; First area pregnancies at Jamestown; More about midwives; Strength of country women
145 – Advantage to home pregnancy deliveries; Past and present endurance of people; Stature of country folk; Using chloroform and ether; Setting with casts and splints; Fatal diseases; Tonsillectomies; Receives cow in payment for service; Other payments of services
292 – Appendicitis; Era of the specialist; Home remedies
350 – Medicine shows; Wards and Watkins products; Liniments; Moonshine; Prohibition
405 – First auto; Open winters; 1950-1951 snowfall; Homemade caterpillar; Staying night at homes; Making winter calls with sled; Graded roads; Gumbo trails
518 – Wife’s helpfulness; A doctor’s hours; Traveling in winter; Professional, personal, and public status; Philosophy of life; Social status
942 – A. C. Townley’s oil well, character, financial status and speaking ability; Gasoline well at Robinson; William Langer’s political ability; NPL support
054 – Doctor’s social life; Doctor’s hours in 20’s and 30’s; Business hours; Business places; Banks fail; James River National Bank fails; Public opinion of closings
177 – James River differentiates between patron depositors before closing; Pettibone Bank fails
211 – Early businessmen; Social life in 20’s; Banker milks a cow; Brandy in watermelon at picnics; Baseball
300 – Reasons for “Good old days”; Socializing; Billy Sunday preaches at Woodworth; Card parties; Neighborliness; Alcohol consumption at parties
409 – Moral in 30’s; People leave
444 – Fowl wildlife; Coyotes; Mammoth Canadian Geese; Wildlife substations
520 – Builds house; Otter Tail Power Company comes into area; Delco plants; REA in area
591 – End of interview
Comment:  Dr. Melzer’s comments include many medical topics of course.  One topic that is elaborated upon during the course of this conversation more so than in many other interviews is midwives.  Elite to this interview is the construction of a homemade caterpillar.

Tape #22 A. L. and Hattie Lueck (Edmunds)
000 – Introduction
020 – (A. L.) Family history; Homestead location; Jamestown residents keep livestock; Moves to Spiritwood; Roller skating at Spiritwood; His education
117 – Nationalities; Early Spiritwood farms and ranchers; Moves into town and back to farm; More about his education; Works for store and dry goods company; Moves to Edmunds; Early businessmen; Nationality relationships; Edmunds population peak; School facilities; Works at post office; Works at Mercantile Store
214 – Description, suppliers, and salesmen of mercantile store; Hotel (Ed Sunday); Other businesses; A. L.’s customer credit; Drought in 30’s and back to prosperity; Works at store and post office; Store business declines (farm program headquarters at Jamestown, auto)
310 – Credit availability; Bankruptcy in 20’s and 30’s; Bank; Edmunds marketing area; Farmers leave area; Larger farms begin in area; A.L.’s opinion of larger farms
388 – NPL strength; A. C. Townley and William Langer speak in area; Opinion of Langer as an orator; NPL membership; Farmers Union Elevator success; WPA; CCC; People profit from WPA income; Better years follow 30’s; Young people leave in 30’s
485 – Military service; World War I Anti-German emotionality; Arrow Wood Lake as recreational area; Baseball; Compares past and present enjoyability of sports; High school is built; School social functions; Lodges and Women’s Auxiliary
583 – Churches; Ladies Aid and other church socials; A particular blizzard in 1917; Livery barn; Railroad service
670 – Doctors; 1918 Influenza Epidemic
723 – Home remedies; Pharmaceutical drugs stocked at Mercantile Store; Fabric prices; Sewing commonality; Flour and sugar sacks used for sewing
822 – Coverall brand names and prices; Shoe prices; Bulk merchandise; Food items stocked in barrels; Canned goods; Meat market; Use of alum in pickles
921 – Mercantile store suppliers; Business holiday gifts
951 – Electricity; REA; Telephones; A.L.’s power plant; Delco plants; Wind chargers; Dance Hall in top of store; Movie theater; Movie serials
031 – Educational facilities and organization; Serves on School Board; Educational funding problems during 30’s; Indebtedness Certificates to pay teacher salaries in 30’s; Taxes cause land loss in 20’s; Compares past and present sociability; (Hattie) comments on “teenage rebellion”
120 – Compares past and present family togetherness; Auto becomes a common item; Auto influence on public; Traveling to Woodworth by horse and buggy
166 – Fishing places; Newspapers; Magazines
238 – A. C. Townley’s oil well; Townley’s organizers; Present oil and coal locations
Comment:  A. L. speaks very quickly and explicitly.  Early general operation of his Mercantile Store, comments about area credit, pharmaceutical drugs, and teacher Indebtedness Certificates are the most informative 1900 topics discussed.

Tape #23 Rose Woychik (Jamestown)
000 – Introduction
029 – Family history; Homestead locations; Nationalities
214 – Family history; Nearest town; Conversation about Courtenay; Settlement of land; Prairie fires; Anecdote about a woman and baby dying at Courtenay prairie fire; Homestead house; Farming with oxen; Anecdote about driving oxen to Courtenay
322 – Sod shanties; Rock houses; Parents’ first impression of ND; Other family history; Rose reads a description of their settlement in ND
429 – Inland post offices; Other towns; Learning about fish at Spiritwood Lake; Anecdote about giving bread to an Indian
514 – Clementsville nationalities; Blacksmithing in family’s history; Fried is organized; Fried businesses
581 – House parties; Music in homes; Dances; Basket Socials; Picnics; Fishing; Going to a circus; Teaches rural school; Church and school programs; A teacher’s community and social expectations
724 – Number of schools in area; Card and House Parties; Rose’s teaching frustrations; Compares past and present disciplinary attitudes between parent, child, and teacher; Young people's dating habits; Teaches at Sykeston; Anecdote about eight men calling upon Rose; Meets husband; A large farm in area; Her education; Receives Elementary Certificate
824 – Begins teaching; Rural teaching responsibilities; Operational difficulties; Disciplinary problems and other teaching expectations; Students’ educational attitude and competitiveness; Student reading ability compared; Starting teacher salaries; Room and board expenses
920 – Father’s land acreage; Financial difficulties in 30’s; Rose works as Vista Volunteer; Strip mining in ND; Small talk about her Vista Volunteer work
051 – Discouragement in 30’s; Gets married; Home location after marriage; Fried Township population in 30’s; Opinion of large farms; Neighborliness; Religious changes and beliefs; Special church services
181 – Pace of life and family life changes; Reasons for “good old days”; Threshing season; Transient workers for threshing
349 – Having trust in a society; A typical threshing day; Past and present human health standards compared
Comment:  This is a good interview.  Rose was a schoolteacher and therefore, her comments about the rural educational system are one of the most informative.

Tape #24
Mary Cusator (Jamestown)
000 – Introduction
020 – Comes to ND; Family history; Nationalities; Sod and frame houses
123 – Farming with oxen; Her education; Family’s impression of ND; Trees; Water problems; Father sails on Great Lakes; Mary’s prairie playmates; Trips to town; Post office; Serves as Superintendent of Schools; Opera House
227 – More about her education; Works at Towner; Her education; Board and room; Begins teaching; Canadian Settlement; Salary; Expenses; Attends Normal School; Serves as Deputy to Superintendent and Superintendent
331 – Works at insurance company; Seeks Office of Superintendent; Teaching at a rural school; Quality of teachers; Rural course at Valley City; Teaching penmanship; Certificates and Warrants used to pay salaries; Teaching standards; Grading papers
443 – Students lack English language; German-Russian parent-teacher relationship; Student requirements; Advancement; Ages and disciplinary procedures; Water and food provisions; Student attitude; Social events
532 – Events held at school building; German-Russian educational development; German-Russian areas; German-Russian educational development compared to other nationalities
594 – Visiting schools as the Deputy; Roads; Schools served as a Superintendent; Superintendent school and teacher objectives; Society level of county teachers in general; Textbooks; Libraries
692 – Teacher individuality; School building construction; Playground equipment; Anecdote about mosquito problems; Lunches; School heating; Anecdote about staying night in a sod house where sheep manure was used for fuel
823 – Rural and city educational ability compared; Child work expectations at home; Parent-teacher cooperation; Horse barns at schools; A teacher’s social expectations
Comment:  Mary’s interview is largely concerned with the educational system in the early and middle 1900 years in North Dakota.

Tape #25 Joseph Johnson (Jamestown)
000 – Introduction
005 – Comes to ND; First impression of ND; His sister works at Pulver Dairy Farm; He works at Spiritwood; Nationalities; Works with Rumely Tractor
162 – Gets married; Begins farming; Works for Chicago Ranch; Description of Chicago Ranch
286 – His wife and her family history; Buys farm; Bad crop years; Grain prices in 20’s; Price of land
347 – Joseph’s finances in 20’s and 30’s; Prices of tractors; Buys first tractor; Crop rust; Raising livestock to earn a living; Buying hay; Better years
473 – Buys milk machine; How milk machine operated; Marketing centers; Selling milk and grain; Midland Continental Railroad in area; Loading platform; Elevator
582 – Nationalities; How Ypsilanti received its name; Ypsilanti businesses; Bank; Political parties; Pat and present political emotionality
670 – Works with WPA; Tree Claim; A sheep ranch on the river
752 – Telephones; Farmers Equity Elevator; Farmers Union; Farm Bureau; Farmers Union and Farm Bureau objectives; Religions
850 – Past and present sociability; Political parties; Church socials; Box Socials; Anecdote about buying a surprise box of coal at a social
917 – End of interview

Tape #26 Ralph Scott (Jamestown)
000 – Introduction
021 – Family history; Writes farm column for Jamestown Sun; Compares reasons for and cost of using oxen and horses; Prairie fires; A barn dug out of side of hill; Homestead locations; Postal service
121 – How Spiritwood Lake received its name; Gray Post Office; Explains homesteading; Preemptions and Tree Claims; Kinds of trees planted
171 – Family history; Homesickness; Education and learning English; Schoolteacher commendability
250 – Magazines; Churches; Idle conversation about Irish; Nationalities; Clementsville
337 – Northwestern Bell Telephone line; Switchboard; Doctors
385 – Home entertainment; Compares past and present visiting conversation; Basket Socials; School functions; House parties
436 – School term; Getting to school; Family history
520 – Threshing machinery and crew; Shocking grain; Threshing season atmosphere; Threshing machinery; Threshing crew meals
720 – Spiritwood butcher shop; Refrigeration; Grain marketing; Clementsville businesses; Location and businessmen; Welding at Spiritwood and Clementsville blacksmith shops; The blacksmith shop’s community role
812 – County Agents introduce livestock and grain; Resistance to County Agents; 4-H Clubs; Reasons that Clementsville, Wimbledon, and Spiritwood declined
906 – Midland Continental Railroad route; Roundhouse; Other area railroads; Railroad freight; Building and closing dates of Midland; Some present railroad routes
006 – Towns in area; Spiritwood businesses; His marriage
107 – Making a living in 30’s; Dust storms; Hay for cattle; Loss and price of farmland
175 – Farmer Holiday Association; Banks fail; Serves in legislature; William Langer’s political philosophy and personality; Comments about John Moses as Governor
326 – WPA
435 – End of interview
Comment:  Ralph speaks very distinctly.  Much of this interview is about the Spiritwood area.

Tape #1 (A)
Mary Young Collection; Walter Larrabee, Emil Smith and Ed Meyer (Carrington), Jennie Lees Pitts (Jamestown); Chicago Ranch Material by Johnson (Foreman)
000 – Introduction
005 – (Walter) Family history; Railroad comes to area; Post office; Family history; Jamestown; Fort Totten and Carrington mail route; First post office and postmaster at Larrabee
154 – Homestead buildings; A particular stage route; Comes back from East; Shooting marksmanship; Father dies; Small talk about mother
324 – (Emil) Winter of 1896; (Ed) Winter of 1896; (Emil) Camp Kimball; Camp Whitney (Pettibone)
520 – (Jennie) Father working with Indians and hunting; Comments about Indian and White friendliness; Anecdote about Indians stopping at Mrs. Larrabee’s home – first woman in Foster County
625 – Earning funds to send mother to Scotland; First postmaster; Description of sod house
723 – Home at Jim Lake; Prized possessions; Wildlife; Fishing; Trapping
847 – Opinion of Wildlife Refuge construction; “Limpy Jack Clayton”; House at Buchanan
936 – (Johnson) Chicago Ranch originates; Acreage and buildings; Mary Gray Lee; Ranchland is divided
035 – His wife; Comments about manager of ranch vacationing; Anecdote about taking a newcomer snipe hunting
171 – Comes to ND; Farming with horses; Threshing machines; New Rockford Threshing Bee; “Big Rock” (Beaver Creek fishing place at Montpelier)
270 – Chicago Ranchland inhabitants; First man to hold claim in Homer Township about Cromwells; Fort Totten Trail and Homer (school)
480 – Mrs. Jim Wright stays in home of family with illness
517 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview includes a number of people that are listed at the top of this page and, therefore a variety of small topics are discussed.  The Chicago Ranch is discussed to greater extent on this cassette than on most others.

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