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Manuscripts - ND Oral History Collection - 10157 - Richland County

Richland County

Region 5
1 B. P. McCusker, Wahpeton
2 Ms. Florence Purdon and Ms. Clara Purdon, Wahpeton
3 Mr. Joseph Stern, Wahpeton
4 Effie Barnard, Wahpeton
5 Mr. Hans J. Madsen (also for Region Four Grant County), Breckenridge
6 Mrs. Mary O’Brien, Wahpeton
7 Mr. and Mrs. William Hektner, Wahpeton
8 Mr. Herbert Weiss and Charles Adamson, Great Bed
9 No Interview
10 Mr. and Mrs. John Barner, Fairmount
11 Mr. and Mrs. Harley Swanson, Fairmount
12 Mrs. Lillian Quamme, Dwight
13 Mr. John Borseth, Abercrombie
14 Mr. and Mrs. John Skovolt, Mooreton
15 Mr. N. F. McCleod and Mr. & Mrs. Ernest Eiegert, Barney
16 No Interview
17 Mr. G. H. Movius, Lidgerwood
18 Mr. Wilbur Chapin, Hankinson
19 Mr. Rudolph H. Hoefs, Hankinson
20 Dr. R. M. Johnson, Wyndmere
21 Mr. Jens Lovdokken, Wyndmere
22 Frank V. Vyzralek, Bismarck
23 Ida Prokop Lee, Lidgerwood

Tape #1 B. P. McCusker (Wahpeton)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Coming to North Dakota in 1906
053 – Early automobiles; First impression of Wahpeton; Nationalities in early Wahpeton; The Bohemian Church; Thriving small town in the area in the early 1900’s
139 – Importance of the railroad in the early 1900’s; Settlement of the County by 1907; Large farms in the early 1900’s; Operation of the large farms
243 – His father’s real estate business; Size of Wahpeton in 1907
299 – Hotels in early Wahpeton; Houses of prostitution in early Wahpeton
333 – His education; Schools in Wahpeton in 1907; Service in the army during World War I
407 – His work in a Wahpeton bank
423 – His wife’s family history
435 – The Karpis Gang robbery of the bank in Wahpeton while he was a teller
602 – Life in Wahpeton during the 1920’s; Blind pigs in Wahpeton during prohibition; Home brew
662 – Social life and entertainment; The Opera House in Wahpeton; Road shows, dances, and silent movies; Baseball
711 – SIDE TWO
726 – Local lodges and fraternal organizations; Circuses; Sports
799 – The flu epidemic of 1918
811 – Nonpartisan League support in Wahpeton; The League Bank and newspaper; Newspapers Wahpeton has had; Popular attitudes toward politics over the years
866 – Banking during the 1930’s; Bank failures in Wahpeton
950 – Dust storms and poor crops during the 1930’s; His opinion of the United States economy at present
001 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently; His opinion of mass media today
026 – The Wahpeton street car system
058 – Progressive businessmen in early Wahpeton
090 – Railroad service in Wahpeton; The Great Northern Depot; Sulky races; County fairs; Chautauquas
157 – His education at the School of Science in 1920
209 – The Wahpeton electrical plant
245 – Excursion boats on the Red River; Fishing in the River prior to its pollution by drainage of land
303 – End of interview
Comment:  This is a generally informative interview.  The portion on banking during the 1930’s is outstanding.

Tape #2 Florence and Clara Purdon (Wahpeton)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Parents settling in Wahpeton in 1880
075 – Their education in Wahpeton and out of state; Their art shop in New Jersey; Painting
173 – Their father’s civic and political services
185 – Nationalities in Wahpeton in 1900; Churches in Wahpeton; Ladies Aid and church related activities
215 – Rowdiness in Breckenridge
230 – Reasons for going to New York art school; Their art shop
270 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently; Florence’s education at the School of Science
298 – Their father’s general store in Wahpeton; Progressive businessmen in early Wahpeton; Robert Hughes; Judy Laugter; Mr. Fortner
383 – Their father’s politics – Republican; Family history
420 – Social life and recreation; Dances; Plays; Movies; Singing in the theater before the movie was shown; The Wahpeton Opera House
515 – Changes that impressed or bothered them
552 – Riding race horses at the fair; The street car; Family history
632 – The condition of the Red River in 1900; Drowning of their brother in the River
706 – Family life prior to radio and television
780 – Their first telephone; Smallpox quarantine
801 – Recreation for young people in the early 1900’s; Their sister’s musical ability; Artistic ability in the family
914 – Cultural opportunities in the early 1900’s
933 – End of interview
Comment:  Although born in Wahpeton, the Purdon’s lived in New Jersey most of their adult life.  Childhood recollections comprise much of this interview.  Portions on family history are perhaps the most valuable.

Tape #3 Joseph Stern (Wahpeton)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; His father’s immigration to North Dakota in 1882 from German
068 – General description of Wahpeton in about 1904 – streets; Family history; Extent of settlement in the County by 1905; Wahpeton’s trade territory in the early 1900’s; Railroad service in the early 1900’s
143 – His father’s clothing store in Wahpeton; Other stores and shops
186 – Influence of chain stores on local businesses
198 – Traveling salesmen prior to automobile; Sources of clothing supply for his father’s store; Early Wahpeton hotels
261 – Changes in the quality of clothing
278 – His start in the clothing store in 1912; Traveling wholesale salesmen with whom he dealt; Advertising in the early 1900’s
352 – Loyalty of his customers; Changing shopping habits; Former stores in small towns in the area
391 – Railroad service in early Wahpeton; Buying merchandise for the store
450 – Effect of agriculture on his clothing business; Poor crop years equaled poor sales
488 – Amount of money spent on clothing, formerly and presently
518 – Morale of businessmen during the 1930’s; His opinion of today’s economy; Easy credit
795 – Religious faith of people, formerly and presently
816 – Collecting debts in the 1930’s; Honest of people then
877 – Bank failures during the 1930’s; Reasons for bank failures
917 – His opinion of coal development in North Dakota
941 – End of interview
Comment:  Information on this tape regarding the operation of a clothing business in the early 1900’s is detailed and highly informative.

Tape #4 Mrs. Effie Barnard (Wahpeton)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Her parents’ farm near Wahpeton
094 – The Scotch settlement near Dwight; Family history
129 – The Antelope Bonanza Farm; Nationalities in the area; The Scotch settlement and its community life; Early churches and schools
197 – Consciousness of nationality in the early 1900’s; Churches of the different nationalities
248 – Family history; Family life in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s; Schools and social life
367 – Literary societies; Teaching school; Parties and dances
493 – Traveling peddlers who walked from farm to farm; Hobos; Gypsies
626 – Social life and entertainment in the summer; Baseball games; Picnics
690 – Cost of land, formerly and presently; Changes in farming methods
708 – SIDE TWO
717 – Threshing
756 – Education of her brothers and sisters; Teaching in rural school; Advantages of rural schools; Horse drawn school buses
905 – Qualities needed in a rural school teacher; Games students played in rural schools; Problems in rural schools; Finding good teachers
035 – Parent involvement in rural schools; Consolidation of rural schools; Music programs in rural schools; Hot lunch programs
205 – Effects of the Depression on rural schools; The young Citizen’s League; Salaries during the Depression; Her years as Richland County Superintendent of Schools
414 – End of interview
Comment:  This is excellent interview throughout.  Portions on rural schools and the Scotch settlement are particularly outstanding.

Tape #5 Hans J. Madson (Breckenridge)(Morton County)
000 – Introduction
020 – Reasons for coming to the United States; His homestead near Brien, North Dakota; Drought in 1911; His brother’s homestead
112 – His work on the Great Northern Railroad; Hobos; The railroad employees union; Hours he worked per week; Wages during the 1930’s
413 – Nationalities in the Brien, North Dakota, area
448 – Working for ranchers upon arriving in North Dakota; Breaking horses; Early ranchers in the Brien area; Account of Timmer, North Dakota
690 – His homestead near Brien and how he made a living on it
823 – The railroad through Brien
857 – White relations with Indians; Early settlers in the Brien area
932 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Madson’s speech is difficult to understand and he tends to ramble.  The interview does contain some information on labor conditions for Great Northern Railroad employees and on early ranches near Brien, North Dakota.

Tape #6 Mrs. Mary O’Brien (Wahpeton)
000 – Introduction
020 – Reasons for coming to North Dakota; Her delivery of a baby while working as a nurse in Wahpeton; Her childhood in Poland
091 – Her marriage to Doctor O’Brien; Their home in Wahpeton; Their children
178 – Helping her husband in his medical practice; Her children; Making house calls; Collecting bills
225 – The flu epidemic of 1918; A busy time for her husband; Her children
286 – Early North Dakotans in Wahpeton; Her health; Getting the hospital built in Wahpeton; Difficulty of collecting bills
349 – Doctor O’Brien’s medical practice in Wahpeton; Her children
410 – End of interview
Comment:  Mrs. O’Brien was one hundred years old at the time of interview.  She was tires at the time, and her memory was somewhat poor.  The interview is consequently of marginal value.

Tape #7 Mr. and Mrs. William Hektner (Wahpeton)
000 – Introduction
020 – His family history; Immigration to Mooreton from Norway; His parents’ homestead and tree claim; Homestead rights
083 – Nationalities in the Mooreton area; His family history
115 – Her family history
155 – The Downing and Adams bonanza farms; The Dwight farm; The Keystone Farm; Operation of the bonanza farms
540 – His opinion of modern large-scale farming
601 – Land prices during the 1930’s
711 – SIDE TWO
743 – His family history
756 – Businesses in early Mooreton; Influence of the automobile on small towns in the Wahpeton area
797 – Good and poor crop years in the early 1900’s; Poor crop prices in the 1920’s
842 – Support for the NPL in the area during 1915-1920; Farming during the 1930’s; Dust storms in 1934
916 – Changes in land use and farming methods since the 1920’s
981 – Their farm; His jobs since leaving the farm in 1944; Morale during the 1930’s
060 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently
098 – Social life and entertainment; Horse drawn school bus; Financing rural schools
192 – Basket socials; Church activities; Clubs; Local baseball teams
337 – Getting electricity on the farm; 32 volt generating plants
424 – End of tape
Comment:  The Hektners are articulate and thoughtful people.  The interview is very informative throughout, particularly on the bonanza farms and the 1930’s.

Tape #8 Herbert Weiss and Charles Adamson (Great Bend)
000 – Introduction
020 – Weiss family history
056 – Businesses in early Great Bend; Nationalities in the area; Large-scale farming in the area today
167 – Trade areas of Great Bend and other small towns in the area in the early 1900’s; Creameries in the area
216 – Operating a grocery store in Great Bend; Difficulty of running small towns businesses
264 – His opinion of the future of small towns and large-scale farming
328 – Making a living during the 1930’s; Changes in food products carried in grocery stores
407 – Support for the Republican party in the area; Farmers’ support for the NPL up to the 1920’s; Brief recollections of Bill Langer and A. C. Townley
478 – Weiss’s opinion of the economy today and the recent presidents
515 – Changes in the pace of life and entertainment; Social life
617 – Adamson’s work and lumberyard in Great Bend; The cost of lumber in the early 1900’s
712 – SIDE TWO
729 – Dray lines in early Great Bend
767 – Hauling grain with horses to the early elevators; Blacksmiths in the area
814 – Adamson’s work of farms as a young man, and his work for an undertaker; Preparing bodies for burial in the early 1900’s
928 – Operating a business in the early 1900’s; Selling coal
980 – First electrical service in 1918 in Great Bend; The first telephone system in town
064 – Early medical care and doctors in Great Bend; The flu epidemic of 1918
177 – Farming and feeding cattle in the 1930’s; Dust storms
206 – Harsh winters
248 – Schools in Great Bend
300 – Conflicts between NPL and IVA supporters; Political appointments to the post office
413 – Adamson’s family history
428 – End of interview
Comment:  This is generally informative interview about the Great Bend area.  Mr. Adamson, the older of the two men, offers some unique recollections of early undertaking practices and of running a lumberyard.

Tape #10 Mr. and Mrs. John Barner (Fairmount)
000 – Introduction
020 – Early settlers in the Fairmount area; Her family history
158 – Building the Milwaukee Railroad into Fairmount; Her family history; Her mother’s education; Midwives in the area
219 – The wooden windmill on her grandfather's farm; Her family history
334 – His reasons for coming to ND; His family history; His first impressions of North Dakota
446 – Threshing; Cook cars; Working on a threshing crew
505 – General discussion on the settlement of the area and their historical artifacts
556 – Early land use in the area; Effect of the railroad on settlement of the area
646 – Her family history
667 – Threshing outfits in the area; Firing steam engines
791 – Sports; Fairmount high school teams
904 – Families in the area in the early 1900’s
961 – SIDE TWO
962 – Fishing in the Bois de Sioux River; Floods of the River
003 – Working as a 4-H leader in Jamestown
018 – Jobs he held since 1914; Organizing the Farm Bureau; Collecting barn yard loans in the 1930’s
173 – Brief history of the farm on which they live
190 – His work for Senator Young in the 1960’s; Young’s ability as a baseball pitcher; Their experiences in Washington
242 – Organizing the Farm Bureau with Usher Burdick and Burdick’s subsequent involvement with the Farm Holiday Association; Comments on Quentin Burdick
335 – Her father’s involvement in the Production Credit Association
356 – Usher Burdick’s involvement with Farm Holiday
383 – His job with the barn yard loan company during the 1930’s
469 – The first oil well near Tioga, drilled in the 1930’s; Mineral rights; Sources of water
649 – His opinion of the 1974 North Dakota Senate race and the First Western Bank scandal in Minot
751 – Story of a family that lived through a winter in the 1930’s on ground wheat and milk; Flour mills in the area
925 – End of interview
Comment:  This is a generally informative interview.  Mrs. Barner’s family came to North Dakota in 1876 and she has a thorough knowledge of the family’s settlement in Richland Count, Mr. Barner’s account of barn yard loans is valuable.    

Tape #11 Mr. and Mrs. Harley Swanson
000 – Introduction
020 – Naming of Fairmount; Family background; The family moves to ND; Immigrant car
113 – Fairmount in early 1900’s and in the depression; WPA in the area; Outhouses built with WPA; Public attitude about WPA
181 – Popularity of F.D. Roosevelt in area; Quality of crops in teens; Attitude about WWI; Crops in 20’s; Land values over the years; Current big farming practices
272 – Background of Mrs. Swanson; Early hard times of her grandparents; Death of father from appendicitis; Difficulty her mother had after father’s death; Credit policies in early years
400 – Mr. Swanson’s experiences on school board; Busing and consolidation of schools; Financing schools in the 30’s; Availability of teachers over years; Peak enrollment periods
505 – Migration away from area during WWII; Changing parental attitudes over years regarding discipline; Morale during the 30’s
575 – Bank closing in 30’s; Public attitude about the closing; More on Fairmount schools
660 – Mrs. Swanson’s mother’s rearing; Education and frugality; Playing the piano for movies; Living in a granary; Working in a bakery during school
815 – Fairmount’s Bakery; Shipping bread on railroad; Mrs. Swanson’s duties in the bakery; Her mother’s qualities
957 – Role of the church in the community over the years; Early minister’s salary; Relationships between different congregations; Parochial school in Fairmount
026 – Early threshing practices; Community feeling about nuns teaching in Public Schools; Help for threshing crews
078 – Fairmount packing plant; Labor strikes close plant; Cooks for threshing cook cars; Stack threshing; Rotation of farmers for grain separator
190 – Early steam plowing around 1910; Electricity comes in around Fairmount; Telephone in area; Water and sewage in Fairmount
263 – Early social life in the area; Box and Basket socials; Mr. Swanson’s background in politics; Issues between rural and towns people; Sociability and neighborliness then and now
387 – Emotions in politics then and now; NPL popularity; Farmers Union; Farm Bureau; NFO; Rail and bus transportation; More on Fairmount; Baseball; Fraternal organizations
736 – Getting started in farming then and now; Current young people’s attitudes about hard times; Hoboes riding the trains; Hobo jungles
861 – End of interview

Tape #12 Mrs. Lillian Quamme (Dwight)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Her father’s immigration to ND and his homestead
054 – The Dwight bonanza farm
085 – Early settlement of the area and the beginnings of the town of Dwight
111 – Her mother’s family; Nationalities in the area
144 – Homes in early Dwight; The Dwight farm; Fires in Dwight; Early businesses
284 – Governor John Miller’s connection with the Dwight Farm
362 – Railroad service in early Dwight; Merits of growing up in a small town; Going to school in Dwight
450 – Family history; Their first car; The decline of Dwight
504 – The effect of the 1930’s on her family; Her marriage and children
554 – Family life during her childhood on the farm
580 – Larry Sprunk explains the Oral History Project
652 – The Richland County Historical Society; General comments about her interest in history
712 – End of interview
Comment:  Although brief, this is an informative interview with an articulate woman who knows the history of Dwight.  Accounts of family history and the Dwight bonanza farm are outstanding

Tape #13 John Borseth (Abercrombie)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; His parents’ farm near Walcott; The average size farm in 1900 and today; His father’s immigration from Norway
120 – Brief description of small towns in the Walcott area
132 – Early flour mill in Abercrombie; Nationalities in the area
148 – Difficulty of finding good drinking water on area homesteads; Cleanliness of the Red River in the early 1900’s
184 – His education at a rural school and work on threshing crews; Threshing operations in general
388 – Use of steam plowing rigs; First general use of gasoline tractors in the area; Large farms in the area in the early 1900’s
418 – Railroad service in early Abercrombie
468 – His marriage; Hard times during the 1930’s on the farm; Dust storms
548 – Changes in land use and land prices since the 1930’s
638 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently; Social life and entertainment
713 – End of interview
Comment:  The outstanding portion of this interview covers the operation of a steam powered threshing rig in detail.

Tape #14 Mr. and Mrs. John Skovholt
000 – Introduction
020 – Mr. Skovholt’s family background; Reason for father coming to US from Norway
068 – Bonanza farms in the area; The Downing farm; The Bagg farm; The dissolution of bonanza farms in area; Economic conditions in early 20’s
150 – Bonanza farming practices; The Fairview or Adams Bonanza farm; Skovholts buy some Adams land
294 – Disappearance of large farm buildings; The Adams house; The Adams family
476 – Bonanza farm personnel and self-sufficiency; Labor supply; Bonanza banking; Dissolution of Bagg farm
626 – Current large farming operations; Skovholt farming experiences
718 – Thoughts on a graduated land tax; Livestock for bonanza farms; Supervisions for large farm operations; Feeding the farm help
859 – Threshing on a bonanza farm; Social life for threshers and farm help; An anecdote about a drinking threshing crew
953 – Changes in values and morals; Railroad hobos and threshing crews; Anecdote about hard-up Minneapolis factory men shocking grain
015 – Side Two
015 – People’s attitudes during depression; Inexpensive social life in 20’s and 30’s; Anecdote about selling hogs; Move on depression
100 – Description of Mooreton and its development; Story of a Mooreton businessman; Transition from horse to power machinery
343 – Social life in Mooreton area over the years
424 – End of interview

Tape #15 N. F. McLeod and Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Biegert (Barney)
000 – Introduction
020 – McLeod’s family history; His father’s immigration from Ontario, Canada; Nationalities in the Barney area
193 – Development of Barney, ND; Early businessmen; Churches and schools; Loss of small town businesses
321 – Churches and nationalities in the area
360 – Early grain elevators and railroad service
384 – Social life and entertainment; Discussion about their photographs; Anecdote about a hired man; Dances; Traveling plays and circuses; Chautauquas; Baseball games; Outdoor movies in Barney in the 1920’s and 1930’s
713 – The average size farm in 1910 and in 1974
767 – Strong Republican support in the area; Popularity of the NPL in 1915-1920’s; Local NPL politicians
919 – The Farm Holiday Association activities in the 1930’s
933 – Side Two
956 – Greater emotionalism in politics in the earlier years; Popular attitudes toward politics today; Bill Langer’s popularity
982 – First electrical and telephone service in Barney
048 – Medical care and early doctors in Wyndmere; The flu epidemic of 1918
080 – Harsh winters in the early 1900’s; Improvement of rural roads in the 1920’s and 1930’s
150 – WPA projects; Planting shelter belts; Building outhouses; FDR’s popularity
221 – First use of radios in the area
250 – Newspapers and farm magazines in homes in the early 1900’s
301 – Ordering from catalogs; Traveling salesmen; Gypsies
379 – Early veterinarians in the area
395 – Hans Langseth, an early settler with a famous long beard
476 – Changes in land use due to soil conservation programs; Benefit of shelter belts
576 – End of interview
Comment:  This is an excellent interview throughout.  Mr. McLeod has an enjoyable sense of humor and a good memory.

Tape #17 Mr. G. H. Movius
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Beginning of Movius businesses in Lidgerwood; 1902 Lidgerwood fire; Opening of reservation starts Movius Land Company
122 – Early settlers around Lidgerwood; Nationalities in area; ‘90’s Bohemian influx; Important people from Lidgerwood
219 – Beginnings of Lidgerwood; Indian trade; Background on mother’s side of family; Ralph Maxwell – rounder and brother owner; Bonzer family of Lidgerwood
340 – More on Movius family; G.H.’s education; Movius business decline
512 – G.H. starts with the barn yard loan program; Rapport with farmers as a loan inspector; Morale of farmers during depression
965 – Lidgerwood during the depression; WPA work in the area; G.H.’s recollections as a farm supervisor for First National Bank and Trust of Sycamore, Illinois
022 – Land values in the 30’s; Area soil quality; Area politics in the depression; 20’s recession; Popularity of the NPL and IVA in the area
114 – End of interview

Tape #18 Wilbur Chapin (Hankinson)
(Note:  This interview has been transcribed)
000 – Introduction
020 – Comments on tape recording
042 – Family history
071 – Account of how Leonard, ND got its name
112 – Covered wagon trip from Wisconsin to Minnesota; Family history
200 – Planting trees with a breaking plow in the prairie; Soils in the southeast portion of ND; Family history; His father’s death and sale of their homestead
350 – Making a living; Building houses; Finding fuel; Living off the land near Leonard in the 1880’s
407 – Farming with oxen
430 – Open prairie between Lisbon and Fargo; their homestead house and furnishings; Making clothes
524 – His father’s homestead; First crops planted; Threshing with a flail and seeding by hand
650 – Early railroad lines in southeast North Dakota
813 – Side Two – Wildlife in the area around 1880-1900; Hunting and fishing
847 – Traveling with horses and wagons; Sleeping on the prairie; Fording rivers
894 – Early Lisbon; Hardiness of early settlers; Child illnesses
925 – His mother; His father’s death and funeral
972 – His education at Leonard and Lisbon schools in the 1880’s; Lack of law enforcement and jails
022 – The party of settlers that moved from Wisconsin to Kidder, SD; Family history
067 – Farm work he did as a youth; Tread power threshing machines; Firing steam engines with straw
170 – Felling timber in Park Rapids, Minnesota; Freighting with horses in the Bemidji area
245 – Harsh winters in the late 1880’ and 1890’s
351 – His stepfather
404 – His start in the jewelry business in 1896 and the various stores where he worked
525 – End of Tape A
000 – Introduction
020 – Beginning works as a watchmaker in Little Falls, Minnesota, and opening his own jewelry store in Sheldon, ND
069 – Moving to Hankinson in 1901; His jewelry store and marriage
128 – Early Enderlin; His children
213 – His jewelry business in Hankinson
290 – Effect of the 1930’s on businesses and banks
325 – Nationalities in the Hankinson area
400 – Hankinson’s growth; Train service to the town
485 – The jewelry business from 1901 – 1930
530 – His opinion of large scale farming
567 – Effect of the 1930’s on farming and morale
655 – Description of the Lisbon area; Appearance of the land in 1880’s; Wild berries in the area
714 – Side Two
716 – WPA projects in the area
748 – Shortage of farm workers during WWI; IWW farm workers and hobos
810 – Blind pigs in Hankinson
845 – The nursery in Hankinson
915 – The Saint Francis Academy in Hankinson
937 – Social life in Hankinson in the early 1900’s
975 – Thoughts on what would happen if the US had a 1930’s style depression again
051 – Recollections of Indian migrations through the Britton, SD area
160 – End of interview

Tape #19 Rudolph Hoefs (Hankinson)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; His father’s work as a dray man from Wahpeton to Winnipeg in the 1870’s; Early railroads; His father’s homestead; Wildlife along the Wild Rice River
100 – Early farming methods; Threshing with flail; Prairie fires
135 – Fort Abercrombie; Relations with Indians; Poor crop years
157 – Red River ox carts; Family history; nationalities in the area; The Whipperman Mercantile Company Stores in Hankinson; Great Bend, and other area towns; Constructing windmills; Working as a stock buyer for John R. Jones; A large landowner; Jones’ financial dealings
342 – Crops raised in the area
376 – His schooling at a rural school
399 – Working at the Hankinson Nursery
480 – Early carnivals
494 – Finding skeletons in a gravel pit; Hauling drinking water; People who drowned in a nearby lake
551 – Story of a man who committed suicide in the 1930’s
625 – Collecting debts; Working for Whipperman Mercantile; Gravel pits in the area
745 – The county “poor farm”; Service in WWI; Pensions and welfare in general
799 – Blind pigs in Hankinson during prohibition; The Hankinson town band
931 – SIDE TWO
935 – Anecdote about an early businessman in Hankinson
985 – The Richland County Fair; Wahpeton street cars; Sterns Clothing store
010 – Blind pigs and prostitution in Lidgerwood; The Elks band; Bootlegging in the area; Attempts to enforce prohibition
098 – Using roasted barley to make coffee; Threshing; Working in the stock yard in Hankinson; Keeping a store open 7 days a week; Working as an undertaker; Funerals in the early 1900’s
265 – The flu epidemic of 1918; Diphtheria and cholera cases in the area
304 – The shooting of Sheriff Moody while evicting a squatter; Capture of the murderer; Account of another murder near Hankinson
466 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Hoefs has a good memory and offers considerable information.  He does move from topic to topic very rapidly, making it difficult to follow the interview at times.  His accounts of undertaking and murders in the area are graphic.

Tape #20 Dr. R. M. Johnson (Wyndmere)
000 – Introduction
020 – Early Wyndmere; Businesses; Moving buildings to the towns present location; First residents in town; Blind pigs; Anecdotes about early residents of Wyndmere; Wyndmere depots
223 – Family history; His father’s employment in Wyndmere; Nationalities in early Wyndmere – Chinese, Negroes, Indiana; Early businesses
295 – His dental practice; His first impressions of ND; His mother’s homesickness
360 – His schooling in Wyndmere; Early businesses; The opera house; Social life; The race track; Local race horses
552 – Nationalities in the area; Bohemians and Scandinavians; Minorities in Wyndmere; Jewish people and Blacks
704 – Area baseball teams
729 – Reasons for survival of some small towns; Railroad passenger service
888 – Changes in social life and business hours
957 – SIDE TWO
962 – Use of railroads in the early 1900’s; The excitement of watching the train arrive; Shipping liquor to Wyndmere from Breckenridge; Fights in the blind pigs
025 – Wrestling and boxing meets in early Wyndmere
050 – Early post office; Barber shop; Opera house; Newspaper in town
099 – His dental practice in Wyndmere since 1925; Changing methods in the practice
347 – Increased concern about dental care
362 – Changes he has witnessed in his lifetime in transportation; Early automobiles
415 – Early fire engines
468 – Comments on reflections on the past; Congeniality of people in small towns
495 – Changes he dislikes – the loss of the work ethic; The Richland County Historical Society
597 – Changes in clothing and dress; Photographers in early Wyndmere
633 – Illnesses and mental stress in small towns; His hobbies during retirement
770 – Strong support for the Republican Party in the area until recently; Popularity of the NPL
871 – Changes in postal rates; Merits of free enterprise
918 – End of interview
Comment:  Dr. Johnson is a knowledgeable and articulate man.  The entire interview is informative.  The portion on early dental practice is particularly outstanding.

Tape #21 Jens Lovdokken (Wyndmere)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; His father’s homestead
100 – The hardiness and honesty of pioneers
142 – Nationalities in the Kindred area; Early Kindred; First churches in the area
193 – His schooling at a rural school
214 – Early Wyndmere; Family history; His father’s farm; His marriage and college education; Some comments on the Vikings and his health and his children  
401 – Farming during the 1930’s (comments on the outline of topics form); Early gas tractors and early farming methods
533 – Religious faith of early settlers
559 – Magazines and newspapers in homes during the early 1900’s; Start of rural mail delivery
664 – Ordering from catalogs; Groceries and dry goods; Shopping in Abercrombie; Selling grain in Colfax
713 – SIDE TWO
720 – Threshing
752 – His father’s involvement in township politics; Comments on the sizes of area towns
825 – Social life and entertainment; Dances
902 – His father’s friendship with Senator McCumber and trips to Norway
948 – Hobos in the early 1900’s; Traveling salesmen; Fishing
989 – Farm Holiday Association activity in the area; Cost of land during the 1930’s
085 – Medical doctors in area towns; The flu epidemic of 1918
146 – His father’s influence on the area in politics and civic affairs; His efforts to organize the Farmers Union
217 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview is of marginal historical value.  Mr. Lovdokken rambled occasionally and gave brief responses to questions.

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