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Manuscripts - ND Oral History Collection - 10157 - Adams County

Adams County

Region 4
1 Mr. Manvel P. Quickstad, Hettinger 0001A
2 Mr. Lawrence Bracewell, Hettinger 0001B
3 Mr. Ole Abelseth, Hettinger 0002A & B
4 Mr. A. O. (Alfred) Brown, Hettinger 0003A & B
5 Mr. George W. Buehler, Hettinger 0004A
6 Mr. Leonard McNeil, Hettinger 0004B
7 Mr. Milan J. Conrad, Reeder 0005B
8 Mr. Harold L. Hanson, Reeder 0007A & B
9 Mrs. Amy Nichols, Reeder 0008A
10 Mr. Henry Hagen, Reeder 0008B
11 Mr. Floyd Howe, Reeder 0009B
12 Mr. Art Anderson, Reeder 0010A & B
13 Mr. and Mrs. Fred Wothe, Reeder 11A & B
14 Mr. Ivan Warbis, Haynes 0012A & B
15 Mr. John Metke, Haynes 0013A
16 Mr. Clarence Tweet, Reeder 0013B
17 D. J. Schults, Hettinger 0017A & B
18 Oscar Opheim, Bucyrus 0018A & B

Portions of the following interview applies to Adams County: 
Mr. and Mrs. John Arusell, #17, Kidder County 0452B

Tape #1 M.P. Quickstad (Hettinger)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, His father’s illness, his work at a store in 1911
100 – His first impressions of North Dakota, recollections of his store, Hettinger, and his mother’s farm
188 – His marriage, wife, and children
235 – His store in Hettinger, Family history
312 – Train service to Hettinger, General comments
359 – Nationalities in the Hettinger area
369 – Social life and entertainment, Baseball games
410 – His work in the store
485 – End of interview
Comment:  This brief interview contains some information on Mr. Quickstad’s General Store in Hettinger

Tape #2
Lawrence Bracewell (Hettinger)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, His parent’s homestead
058 – Nationalities in the Hettinger area, His schooling, His parent’s farm, Hard times, Early Hettinger, His café in Hettinger
128 – His wife’s family, Running the café twenty-four hours per day
161 – Settlement of the area, Morale during the 1930’s, WPA projects, Dust storms and grasshoppers, Loss of population during the 1930’s
280 – The average size farm in 1920 and today
291 – Coal mines in the area
318 – WPA projects in Hettinger
326 – Leading businessmen in early Hettinger, Train service in early Hettinger
372 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Bracewell’s responses to questions tend to be very brief and general

Tape #3
Ole Abelseth (Hettinger)
000 – Introduction
020 – Conversation about his old photographs
043 – Family history, Immigration from Norway, His passage on the Titanic on a trip back from a visit to Norway, Description of the disaster and how he survived
701 – Side two
720 – Premonitions he had of the disaster
789 – Reasons for coming to North Dakota, Working for farmers in Hatton, North Dakota, area, His travels in North Dakota, Canada, Minnesota, and Montana after the Titanic trip
849 – His homestead in South Dakota, Moving to Reeder, North Dakota, in 1943, Moving to Washington state in 1948 and then back to North Dakota
901 – His marriage and farm in South Dakota, Buying land in the 1930’s for taxes
986 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently
023 – Religious faith, formerly and presently, His opposition to abortion, His opinion of Richard Nixon and Watergate
119 – Making a living during the 1920’s and 1930’s, Land prices, Loss of some of his land
274 – The flu epidemic of 1918
321 – The Titanic disaster, His thoughts when he was in the water and the ship sank
406 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Abelseth’s memory of the Titanic sinking is exceptionally clear.  That portion of the interview is very valuable and informative.  The other portions of the interview deal primarily with South Dakota

Tape #4 A. O. Brown (Hettinger)
000 – Introduction
020 – Conversation about his historical relics – old dollars and coins
054 – His reasons for coming to North Dakota, Family history, His work as a watchmaker in Minnesota, Travel to North Dakota with three other men and choosing their homesteads in 1906, The Turner Land Company in Gladstone
162 – Story about a man who took his coal out of his homestead shack
220 – First impressions of North Dakota, Why he stayed and filed on a homestead, Locating his homestead and measuring the quarter of land, Traveling from Gladstone to the Hettinger area – a two day trip
333 – Buffalo bones on the prairie, Settlement of the Hettinger area
350 – His first visit to Hettinger when there was only one building in the future town
422 – Organization of Adams County, Traveling to get signatures on the petition to create the county, The development of Hettinger, Opening a little jewelry and watch repair shop in Hettinger
590 – Returning to Minnesota to get married and coming back to Hettinger, Building and financing his house in Hettinger, Selling his homestead
656 – Early businesses and businessmen in town, Enlarging his jewelry business in 1916
750 – Serving as Clerk of Court in Adams County and working in the Hettinger Bank, Buying the bank in Bucyrus
931 – Side two
931 – Closure of the Bucyrus Bank in 1929, Their move back to the farm in 1929, His job selling subscriptions for the Dakota Farmer during the early 1930’s, Working for International Harvester in Fargo, Loss of that job and his subsequent work for the State Welfare Department in Minnewaukan and Washburn, Taking a job with International Harvester again then back to the Welfare Department again this time in Ellendale and later back to Washburn
085 – Running the Hettinger Candy Company beginning in 1943
155 – His civic activity in Hettinger, Building his sod house museum
202 – Family history, His parent’s immigration from Norway and his father’s café in Appleton, Minnesota, His childhood in Appleton, His father’s homestead in McHenry County
280 – Nationalities in the Hettinger area, Large ranchers in the area prior to the influx of homesteaders
324 – Anecdote about a man looking for a homestead whose equipment he bought by getting a man to loan him money
463 – Early Hettinger, Plowing furrows around the lots in town when it was first plotted, Early businesses in town, Bank failures in Hettinger, Banks in Reeder
552 – Leading businessmen in early Hettinger, Bankers and lawyers
597 – Prairie fires
614 – Coal mines in the area in the early 1900’s, Digging his own coal
665 – His opinion of coal development in North Dakota
731 – Religious faith, formerly and presently, Norwegians church service, His religious beliefs
877 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Brown has a remarkable memory.  This interview is highly informative and is excellent throughout

Tape #5
George Buehler (Hettinger)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, Reasons for coming from Nebraska to North Dakota, His homestead near Hettinger, Traveling in an “immigrant car”, Anecdotes about homestead life and horses
190 – First impressions of the Hettinger area
203 – Relations between ranchers and homesteaders, Water sources
220 – His homestead, Raising flax, Early farm machinery, Threshing
288 – Raising purebred cattle, Making hay, Buying horses, Making horses look younger by doctoring up their teeth, Shipping cattle to Chicago and riding along on the train
377 – Hard times for the cattle business during the 1930’s, Other cattle ranchers in the area, Farming with horses
440 – His children, Making a living during hard times in the early 1900’s, His remarkable dog
487 – Location of his homestead, Early Haynes, North Dakota, and the Farmers Union Elevator there
527 – Nationalities in the Haynes area, Buying hay
563 – Stringing rural telephone lines around Hettinger in the early 1900’s, Buying feed for horses, Farm horses in general, His health
677 – Family history
706 – End of interview

Tape #6 Leonard McNeil (Hettinger)
Tape A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, Travel to North Dakota
057 – First impressions of Hettinger, His parents’ homestead near Hettinger, Their sod house, Building and plastering the sod house, Constructing a root cellar, Preserving vegetables
253 – Nationalities in Adams County
298 – Traveling in an “immigrant car” with livestock and household goods from Fargo to Hettinger
470 – Early Hettinger with shacks and tents, Getting settled on their homestead, Farming with oxen
672 – Sources of good water
712 – End of Tape A
Tape B
000 – Introduction
020 – Riding along with a cattle train to St. Paul and eating in an expensive restaurant there
072 – The first schoolhouse in Hettinger, Planting trees at the school
123 – Large ranches in the Hettinger area, Reasons why the big ranches disappeared
188 – Reasons for Hettinger’s survival and prosperity
198 – The atmosphere in Hettinger during the homestead boom, Finding farm horses and breaking broncos, Poverty of some homesteaders, Breaking sod with a steam rig
315 – Gardening, Good and poor crop years since 1909, Drought in 1911
382 – Early churches and pastors in Hettinger, Religious faith in the early 1900’s and today
460 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently
500 – Coal mines in the area in the early 1900’s
580 – Coyotes
638 – Changes in the appearance of the area, Women homesteaders
694 – Family history, His start in farming
752 – Raising a family and making a living during the 1930’s, Working on the WPA projects
814 – His opinion of large-scale farming
888 – The worst years in the 1930’s and return of prosperity in the 1940’s
943 – End of interview
Comment:  A generally informative interview throughout, this tape contains a detailed description of constructing a sod house and root cellar

Tape #7 Milan J. Conrad (Reeder)
Tape A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, The stage line from Dickinson to Reeder
079 – His father’s homestead, Dishonest land locaters, Immigrant cars, Some family history
134 – Reasons for success or failure of homesteaders
155 – Early ranchers in the area, Anecdote about Tom Stevens getting tobacco for his wife, Open range, Operation of the large ranches
231 – Family history, The excitement of homesteading and boom times in the small times
272 – Rancher’s dislike of homesteaders
293 – Nationalities in the area, Poverty of some homesteaders, Cooperation of the homesteaders, Digging and eighty-five foot well with shovels
401 – Their homestead house
427 – Good and poor crop years, Drought of 1911, First breaking on the homestead, Steam plowing rigs, First crops on new breaking
485 – Various horsepower machines, Farming with oxen, Threshing and hauling grain, Early grain augers
633 – Good and poor crop years since 1908, Grain varieties
705 – Expansion of his father’s farm
725 – Small towns in the area that have disappeared since the early 1900’s
755 – His schooling, His travels and jobs in the United States from 1919 to 1929, Teachers in the rural schools
867 – Social life and entertainment in the early 1900’s, Dances, Making his first radio, Influence of the radio
961 – End of Tape A
Tape B
000 – Introduction
020 – First radios
051 – Baseball teams and games, Dances, “Lot sale day” celebrations and other festive days in Reeder
121 – Circuses, Chautauquas, The Reeder movie theater
153 – The rural telephone system out of Reeder, Anecdote about a telephone operator
196 – The Reeder electrical company, Wind chargers and gasoline powered generators
282 – Women’s organizations in early Reeder, Fraternal organizations
316 – Prohibition, Bootlegging, and home brew, Social life
366 – Coal mines in the area in the early 1900’s, His opinion of coal development in North Dakota
466 – Social life in Reeder during the 1930’s, Coal development
483 – A. C. Townley and the NPL, His opinion of Bill Langer, Rural-Urban divisions on support for the NPL, Thoughts on North Dakota politics and prohibition
678 – Leading businessmen in early Reeder, William Krebsbach
705 – Side two
705 – 725 is blank
725 – Businesses in early Reeder, Newspapers in Reeder, Blacksmiths, Shopping on Saturday nights, Poker games, Bootlegging
847 – Morale during the 1930’s, Loss of population, Worst crop years during the 1930’s, Grasshoppers, New Deal farm programs
996 – Crops and loan policies during the 1940’s
021 – The average size farm in the 1920’s, Loss of farms and bank failures in the 1930’s
091 – WPA projects in the Reeder and Scranton area
119 – Cooperative elevators, The Equity exchange elevators, The Farmers Union, Farm Bureau, N.F.O.
241 – Ordering from catalogs in the early 1900’s
261 – Railroad service in Reeder, Reeder’s trade area
297 – Cattle drives to the Reeder stockyards
322 – Improving roads in the Reeder area
360 – Reading material in the early homes
407 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Conrad is an articulate man with an excellent memory.  This is an excellent interview throughout

Tape #8 Harold Hanson (Reeder)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, His father’s reason for coming to North Dakota, The stage line from Dickinson to the Leff Ranch
090 – His father’s homestead near Reeder and their homestead house, Items and livestock they brought to North Dakota in an “immigrant car”, Family history
169 – His father’s purchase of a relinquishment, First crops planted
200 – Nationalities in the area, Prevalence of bachelor homesteaders, Price and terms of getting an “immigrant car”, Buying horses in Minnesota for sale in North Dakota, Farming with mules, Early farm machinery
320 – Family history, His mother’s loneliness
347 – Anecdote about a cap he lost as a child
372 – Expansion of his father’s farm, Raising hogs, His father’s cattle-buying operation, Making dried beef
485 – Businesses and businessmen in early Bucyrus, Anecdote about a whiskey-drinking preacher
589 – His schooling, Buying cattle and hogs when he was fifteen, His father’s move to Reeder and work in a bank, Banks in Reeder
688 – Early Reeder compared to Bucyrus, His father’s cattle
702 – Side Two
702 – Buying business and other businesses, Fluctuations in the cattle market in the early 1900’s, Selling livestock and riding along on the train
785 – His bulk oil business from 1930 – 1944, Buying cattle and hogs
863 – Giving credit to farmers for oil in the 1930’s
901 – Morale during the 1930’s, Social life in the 1930’s
929 – Strong support for the NPL in the area, His opposition to the NPL and support for the IVA, Recollections of Bill Langer
988 – Support for Farm Holiday Association
013 – Political speeches and politics as a social activity in the early 1900’s, His support for the IVA
097 – Poverty of some families in the 1930’s, Credit policy of his oil company during the 1930’s
131 – The use of gas tractors beginning in the 1920’s and 1930’s, Early gas tractors
240 – The flu epidemic of 1918, Area doctors and medical care, Anecdote about a family with twenty-three children, Story about Doctor Hodge, and amateur doctor without a license
403 – End of interview
Comment:  A generally good interview, portions on cattle buying and the bulk oil business are the most informative.  All of Mr. Hanson’s recollections deal with the period after 1910

Tape #9 Mrs. Amy Nicholas (Reeder)(Traill County)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, Account of early Caledonia, North Dakota, Her father’s reasons for moving to the Reeder area, Moving to the Reeder area in an “immigrant car”
120 – First impressions of the Reeder area, Their house in Caledonia and sod shack on the homestead
169 – Early settlers in the Reeder area, Family history, Leaving Reeder and returning to Caledonia in 1922, Hard times on the farm near Reeder
231 – The Reeder area midwife
261 – Nationalities in the Reeder area, Family history, Children’s chores on the farm
345 – Keeping milk and cream cool in the well, Digging the well by hand, Gardening
414 – The religious faith of her parents, Lack of churches in the Reeder area, Attending school in Reeder and driving back and forth from the homestead, Basketball games – rivalry with Hettinger
580 – Her parent’s move back to Caledonia, Teaching at a rural school near Reeder
623 – Her husband’s family history, Their marriage and her husband’s work in the Reeder bulk oil station
716 – Her children
725 – The flu epidemic of 1918, Doctors in Reeder for whom her husband drove
821 – Making a living during the 1930’s, Drought and grasshoppers, Morale during the 1930’s, Her husband’s work on WPA, Return of better times in the early 1940’s
948 – End of interview

Tape #10 Henry Hagen (Reeder)
Tape A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, His brother’s hotel in Reeder in 1908
114 – Nationalities in the Reeder area, Reeder’s trade area in the early 1900’s, Settlement of the area, Immigrant cars
174 – First impressions of the Reeder area
203 – Early Reeder, a boom town, Poverty of some early settlers, Poor crop years of 1910 and 1911, Family history, Their homestead house
273 – Historical sketch of their present farm, Once dubbed “Canvass City”
317 – The HT Ranch and other early ranching operations, Account of the Leff Ranch and stage line
404 – Early businesses and businessmen in Reeder
470 – Poverty of some homesteaders, Selling homesteads
501 – Breaking sod with oxen, horses and steam rigs, Early farming practices
542 – Problems finding good water, planting trees, Horsepower drilling rigs
601 – Homesteaders’ sources of coal-local mines
645 – Getting flour from area mills, Railroad freight service, Shipping livestock on the railroad, Raising sheep
845 – Finding hay in the 1930’s, Feeding thistles, Loss of population in the 1930’s
953 – End of Tape A
Tape B
000 – Introduction
020 – Morale during the 1930’s, WPA projects
059 – Improved seed varieties, County agents, Changes in land use since the early 1900’s
107 – Crop years from 1927 to 1940, Dust storms, Grasshoppers
218 – Mechanizations of farming, Steam plowing rigs and early gas tractors
280 – Obtaining electricity, Wind chargers, Gas stoves
342 – Support for the NPL in the area, A. C. Townley’s and Langer’s popularity, His admiration for Bill Lemke
414 – The Farm Holiday Association, Stopping foreclosure sales, Bill Langer
464 – The flu epidemic of 1918, Death of his brother, Early doctors and medical care
510 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently
653 – Early small towns in the area
716 – Early farm magazines and newspapers in the area
762 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Hagen has a very good memory.  This is a generally good informative interview, particularly on topics connected with farming and ranching

Tape #11 Floyd Howe (Reeder)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, His father’s homestead
115 – Nationalities and early settlers in the area, Ranchers’ opposition to homesteading
186 – Large ranches in the Reeder country, Horse ranchers, Bad relations between ranchers and homesteaders
240 – A woman doctor and midwife who also served as a veterinarian in Reeder in the early 1900’s, prevalence of lice, fleas, and various bugs in the homes in the early 1900’s
319 – Family history, Hunting for a living
431 – Anecdote about finding a ring on the prairie, Hospitality of early settlers, Increased tension of life today, Hard work his mother did
579 – Preserving vegetables in root cellars, cutting ice in the winter
607 – Difficulty of finding good water, “Water witches” or dousers, Digging wells by hand
756 – Sources of fuel, manure and coal, Coal mining by local farmers in the early 1900’s, Underground coal mines
848 – His opinion of coal development in North Dakota
907 – End of interview
Comment:  This brief interview contains several anecdotes about early settlers and some perceptive observations about life in the early 1900’s

Tape #12 Art Anderson (Reeder)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, First impressions of North Dakota in 1917, His parent’s farm, Immigrant cars
077 – First crops planted, poor crop years, Milking cows and selling cream, Turning out horses in winter
140 – Early settlers in the Reeder area, Working as a hired man and running a steam engine
184 – Threshing, Owners of threshing rigs
218 – Crop years in the 1920’s and 1930’s, Farming with horses, Digging water wells by hand
284 – Getting his own farm
317 – Farming during the 1930’s, Mining coal for sale during the 1930’s on his land near Reeder
472 – Loss of population during the 1930’s, Self-sufficiency on the farm in the 1930’s, Preserving food
540 – Changes in land use since the 1920’s, Soil conservation practices, County agents, Service on the ASCS County Committee
586 – Politics of people in the area, Increasing number of Democrats since the 1930’s, Raising cattle in the 1930’s, Increasing the size of his farm
650 – Dances and entertainment in the 1920’s and 1930’s
724 – Model T cars, Early cars and trucks in general
734 – Side two
767 – His support for the Farmers Union Coops, Some comments on NPL
802 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently, Cooperation of farmers, Family life and social life
892 – Telephone service in the 1920’s, Thirty-two volt electrical systems, Early radios
930 – Religious faith, formerly and presently
944 – End of interview
Comment:  A resident of North Dakota since 1917, Mr. Anderson was not able to provide accounts of the earliest settlement of the Reeder area.  His responses to questions tend to be brief and general.

Tape #13 Mr. and Mrs. Fred Wothe (Reeder)(Hettinger County)
000 – Interview
020 – His family history, His father’s farming operation near Reeder, First impressions of North Dakota
094 – His dad’s steam threshing rig, Hauling water to the engine, Steam plowing rigs, Steam engines and early gas tractors his father had on his large farm
166 – Her family history – and some of his
204 – Midwifery and midwives in the New England area
216 – Nationalities in the New England area, Traveling to her parent’s homestead by “immigrant car”, Destruction of their home by fire
319 – Ordering from catalogs, Visiting among neighbors, Lack of churches in the area south of New England
338 – Difficulty of finding good water, Death of a man who was digging a well due to lack of oxygen
433 – Sources of fuel, Coal mines near Reeder
517 – Prairie fires, Making firebreaks
677 – Wildlife in the area in the early 1900’s
713 – Difficulty of finding hay for cattle in the early 1900’s, The flu epidemic of 1918, Reeder’s doctor Dash, Home remedies for illness, Doctor Hodge, and amateur doctor in the area
877 – Helpfulness and cooperation of neighbors, Infrequent trips to town
966 – Side two
992 – Family life in the early 1900’s, Visiting neighbors
020 – Early automobiles, His work as a mechanic on cars and steam engines, Merits of steam tractors, First use of gas tractors in the area
126 – His start in farming
141 – Her family history and their return to Wisconsin and back again to North Dakota
199 – Their courtship and marriage, Barn dances and entertainment
260 – Family history, Their first farm after marriage
299 – Making a living during the 1930’s, Morale during the 1930’s, His work as manager of the Farmer’s Union Oil Company in Reeder, Credit policy during the 1930’s
451 – Strong support for the NPL in the area, The attitude toward politics in the early 1900’s, Split between town and farm over the NPL, Opposition to the Farmers Union among businessmen
541 – Recollections of Bill Langer, Decline of support for the NPL
577 – Lack of controversy over women’s suffrage, Her opinion of the present women’s movement
643 – Basket socials in schools and churches, Her education and work as a rural schoolteacher
704 – Neighborliness of people and family life, formerly and presently
764 – Their opinion of modern large-scale farming
996 – End of interview
Comment:  This is an informative and enjoyable interview although there is little information on early settlement of the area

Tape #14 Ivan Warbis (Haynes)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, His father’s homestead in South Dakota, His father’s livery barn and dray line in Haynes
098 – Coal mines nears Haynes, Early Haynes businesses, Building roads, Hauling coal
270 – Businesses in early Haynes, Fires in Haynes, Story about an injured horse
455 – Family history, Nationalities in the Haynes area
498 – Haynes’ trade area, Chandler, North Dakota, Their dray line from Haynes to Chandler, Train service in early Haynes
648 – Operation of the livery barn and dray line, Hiring
706 – Side two
706 – Hobos to help with loading and unloading
759 – Traveling salesmen hiring teams from the stable
800 – Growing up in Haynes, Businesses and early townspeople, The Haynes cattle yards
875 – The miner’s strike, Operation of the mines near Haynes, Wages for miners
027 – Cleanliness of streets prior to automobiles, Anecdote about a runaway team
122 – Bootlegging in Haynes, Home brew, Moonshiners near Haynes, Drinking during prohibition
282 – Women school teachers, a source for wives for homesteaders
301 – The decline of Haynes when the mines closed
413 – End of interview
Comment:  This is an entertaining interview, full of anecdotes about early Haynes.  Information on the operation of livery stables and dray lines is valuable.

Tape #15 John Metke (Haynes) (Mercer County)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, Immigrations from Germany, Their homestead near Hazen, Hail storms that ruined their crop each year from 1910 – 1915
136 – Hauling grain to Mannhaven
158 – Strip mining, His work for the Knife River Coal Company, Coal mines in the Hazen and Beulah area
195 – Working on the railroad section crew in the 1920’s near Haynes
248 – His marriage, Making a living during the 1930’s
295 – Nationalities in the Hazen and Richardton area, Family history
339 – His schooling at a rural school near Hazen, Prairie fires, Plowing firebreaks
394 – Coal mines near Hazen, Sod houses and mud-brick houses
414 – Working in the mines, Operating steam engines, early gas tractors and automobiles
571 – His farm, Sale of his farm
591 – Thoughts about life in North Dakota

Tape #16 Clarence Tweet (Reeder)
Tape A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history, Moving to North Dakota in 1910. Loss of the farm near Reeder and moving to a different farm nearby, Poor crop years in the ‘teens, Damage to a flax crop by sheep, Renting land from the Williams family
159 – Nationalities in the Reeder area, Scandinavian churches in the area, A sod church
283 – His first impressions of North Dakota, Playing violin for dances, Social life, Discussion of his pictures of Reeder
350 – Comments on the “pioneer spirit” and the beginning of Reeder, The rowdy lot sale in Reeder, Leading businessmen in early Reeder, Anecdote about a musician from Minneapolis who homesteaded, (some of the above was read from a book)
604 – Rapidity with which the town was built, Businesses in early Reeder
732 – End of Tape A
Tape B
000 – Introduction
020 – Service in the army, His college education
070 – Farmers Alliance and Granger movements, His research into those movements and their buying clubs, The Equity Coops, Businessmen’s opposition to farm coops
165 – Line elevators and their unfair practices, The Equity Elevator
194 – General comments about the NPL
240 – Discussion about New Deal farm programs
259 – The Equity Association and the early NPL, Federal Land Bank Loans
311 – Bill Langer’s schemes in the NPL, the “Hissing Snake” cartoon about Langer, Background of The Equity Association in North Dakota and development of the NPL, Discussion about nineteenth century farm movements
501 – The background of The Equity Elevator in Reeder, Opposition of townspeople to the Equity, Organization of Farmers Union Coops in Reeder
604 – The Adams County Farm Holiday Association, Activities of the organization, Langer’s wheat embargo in 1934
731 – Side two
740 – His political beliefs, Conflicts with John Birch Society members at church meeting
852 – His opinion of modern society, Richard Nixon and the oil shortage, Account of a homestead family in South Dakota who were spiritualists, Religion and churches in general, The Lutheran World Federation of Churches Convention in 1963
095 – End of Tape B
Tape C
000 – Introduction
022 – Recollections of good crop years since 1940
058 – Organization of the Farmers Union in North Dakota and in Reeder, ND
223 – The Farm Holiday movement in North Dakota and in Adams County
472 – Sisseton, South Dakota, Communist Farm group
613 – Farm Holiday activity in Adams County
730 – Recollections of Tom Hagen, an organizer for the Farm Holiday Assoc.
787 – Problems of organizing the Farm Holiday Association in Adams County, rival radical groups, anecdotes of “bidding in” at foreclosure sales
140 – Public opinion regarding Farm Holiday Assoc. activities in Adams County
297 – Opposition to the Farm Holiday Assoc.
323 – Cases of loan agencies taking advantage of farmers
429 – End of Tape C
Tape D
010 – Tweet’s experiences as a public speaker for the Farm Holiday Assoc. and in support of political candidates
047 – Anecdote about Usher Burdick
074 – Opinions of several articles written about the Nonpartisan League and the Independent Voters Association intermingled with anecdotes about various ND politicians, Observations on Nonpartisan Leader cartoonists
343 – NPL Consumer Stores and reason for their failure
484 – Comments on sources of N.P. L. history intermingled with comments on Leader cartoonists
603 – Recollections of ND politicians and NPL activities from 1914 – 1930’s, Anecdotes of A. C. Townley
795 – Comments of radicalism of North Dakotans
913 – Early history of Reeder, ND, and Reeder Bottling Works
094 – Langer’s attempted embargo on wheat
185 – NPL licensing of newspapers for public notices
272 – End of tape


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