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Manuscripts - ND Oral History Collection - 10157 - Stark County

Stark County

Region 4
1 Monsignor Herman Mandry, Richardton
2 Father Amandus Studer, Richardton, Assumption Abbey
3 Brother Victor John Frankenhausen, Richardton, Assumption Abbey
4 Father Reinhard Kaufman, Richardton, Assumption Abbey
5 Father Stanley Sticke, Richardton, Assumption Abbey
6 Mrs. Emma Wagner, Richardton
7 Mrs. Anna Schnell, Richardton
8 Matilda Stoxen, Taylor
9 Mr. William Bloom, Taylor
10 Mr. Zeno Muggli, Richardton
11 Mr. and Mrs. Anders Hagburg, Gladstone
12 Mr. Fred Birdsall, Gladstone
12b Mr. E. D. Culver, Gladstone
13 Mr. William Beaudoin, Dickinson
14 Mrs. Mae Leonard, Dickinson
15 Mrs. Isabella Schoch, Dickinson
16 Mr. Frank Weiler (unreleased), Dickinson
17 Mr. and Mrs. Gus Fuchere, Dickinson
18 Mrs. Anna Huschka, Belfield
19 Mrs. Josephine Dietz, Belfield
20 Mrs. Alphonse Dorval, Belfield
21 Mr. Phillip Kessel, Belfield
22 Mr. and Mrs. Louis Bullickson, Taylor
23 Mr. Pete Dassinger, Gladstone
24 Frank Lech, Dickinson-Lefor

Portions of the following interviews apply to Stark County:
Mr. E.V. Brown, #6, Cass County
Mr. Earl Barnick, #12, Cass County

Tape #1 Monsignor Herman Mandry
TAPE A
000 – Introduction
027 – Family history
130 – Personal history of early life in Chicago, Illinois
261 – First impressions of North Dakota
350 – His duties at Assumption Abbey, Richardton
365 – Causes of Abbey going into bankruptcy in 1920’s
564 – Description of Abbey Schools in 1917
602 – Re-opening of Abbey in 1928
678 – Economic conditions at Abbey in 1930’s
700 – His service at parishes in Taylor, Richardton, Garrison, Berthold, and Mott
749 – Abbey closed; 1924-1928
758 – Recollections of former Bishops
779 – Origins of Benedictine Monasteries in the United States
853 – Origin of monastery at Richardton in 1898
960 – Description of early trip to Yellowstone Park
026 – Circumstances allowing re-opening of Abbey in 1928 by St. John’s Monastery intermingled with description of structure of Benedictine Order
118 – Recollections of former monks and abbots
150 – Construction of Abbey buildings
315 – Problems the Catholic Church faced in North Dakota during the 1930’s
434 – Morale of people during the 1930’s
457 – End of Tape A
TAPE B
(Housed on side #2 of tape #8 in Stark County)
000 – Introduction
020 – Experience as parish priest in Mott and building Catholic school in Mott
043 – Nationalities of those who settled in the Mott area
106 – Origin of town of Mott and of Mott Supply Store
135 – Early history of first Catholic Church in Mott
162 – Nationalities of Catholics in Richardton-Mott area
200 – Origin and history of Catholic parishes in Richardton-Mott area
349 – Leading families of early Mott
390 – Bank failures in Mott during Depression
424 – Early civic organizations in Mott and surrounding towns
492 – The Garrison area during the Depression
520 – Reflections on present day Mott
623 – Religious faith during the Depression compared to the present
714 – End of interview

Tape #2 Father Amandus Studer
000 – Introduction
020 – Circumstances leading Father Studer to come to Assumption Abbey and his impressions of North Dakota
166 – History of Assumption Abbey in the 1920’s
250 – Origin of Assumption Abbey
270 – School attendance at Abbey College
290 – National origins of first priests at Abbey
303 – His preparation for the priesthood and parishes he served
421 – Economic difficulties at the Abbey during the 1930’s
470 – Agricultural operations at the Abbey
489 – Comments on Richardton hospital and Catholic hospital in Crosby, ND
550 – Early history of the priory near Richardton
598 – Functions of the Abbey
674 – End of interview

Tape #3 Brother Victor John Frankenhausen
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
060 – Early history of Assumption Abbey intermingled with family history
070 – Early power plant at the Abbey
104 – Bee keeping at the Abbey
121 – Coal mining at the Abbey
154 – Brick works at the Abbey
170 – Early history of the Abbey
230 – Years of peak activity at the Abbey
254 – Breakdown of duties at the Abbey
286 – Morale at the Abbey since the 1930’s
409 – Liberalism in the modern Catholic Church
423 – Relations between Abbey and Richardton residents
448 – Financial support for the Abbey
472 – Geographical area served by Abbey and nationalities in the area
560 – Description of a monk’s daily schedule at the Abbey
699 – End of interview

Tape #4 Father Reinhard Kaufman
000 – Introduction
020 – Personal history of early life
055 – First impression of North Dakota and its people
210 – His education and parishes he served including recollections of missionary service among Indians at Elbow Woods
346 – Conclusions about life in North Dakota and in the United States
462 – Experience as a missionary at Elbow Woods and of problems of relocating church, school, and homes during construction of Garrison Dam
841 – Moving to and naming Mandaree
989 – Observations on government policy toward Indians
105 – Observations on Indian relations with whites in Fort Berthold area and observations on Indian life
315 – Comments on intermingling of traditional Indian beliefs with Catholicism
340 – End of interview

Tape #5 Father Stanley Sticke
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
072 – Description of schools he attended
116 – Family history
142 – Early farming and harvesting methods including livestock raising
290 – Family history
300 – Medical care in the early 1900’s
327 – Religious life in the early 1900’s; First Catholic churches in the Dickinson area
376 – Farm life in the early 1900’s
447 – Description of building a stone house
606 – Description of domestic chores on farm
658 – Coal mining by farmer in the area south of Dickinson
SIDE TWO
717 – Description of rural schools and teachers in early 1900’s
740 – Home entertainment and social life in early 1900’s
789 – Food preservation prior to refrigeration
814 – His reasons for attending Assumption Abbey High School and joining Benedictine Order
960 – Parishes served by Father Sticke
043 – Effects of the Depression on the Abbey and public morale
140 – Politics
241 – New Deal Programs
285 – Influenza epidemic of 1918
328 – Religion
350 – End of interview

Tape #6 Mrs. Emma Wagner, Richardton
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
073 – Her courtship and marriage
105 – Her husband’s family history
119 – Description of their first home and farm intermingled with family history
176 – Early medical care and midwives
188 – General conversation regarding her old photographs
224 – Nationalities in the area
234 – Her second marriage and family history
256 – Hard times on the farm during and prior to the 1930’s
314 – Gardening and food preservation
465 – First impressions of North Dakota; Wildlife
506 – Self-sufficiency on the farm; Milling wheat and preparing food
547 – Sources of fuel
565 – Food preservation
645 – General description of daily life on the farm
679 – Threshing
715 – Children’s chores; Milking cows
734 – Her morale during the 1930’s
752 – Food preservation
764 – Farming after her first husband’s death
781 – Raising, dressing, and packing poultry for sale
858 – Sewing and making clothes
897 – Richardton fire of 1919 and flu epidemic of 1918
923 – Home remedies for illness
941 – Making soap and washing clothes
022 – Making butter
037 – Social life and reflections on the “good old days”
153 – Religion
192 – Education; Rural schools
300 – Account of her children
388 – Thoughts on North Dakota

Tape #7 Mrs. Anna Schnell
000 – Introduction
021 – Family history and travel from South Russia to New York
130 – Account of life in South Russia and reasons for emigrating
320 – Travel from Russia to North Dakota
407 – Homesteading and farming
446 – South Russia
459 – Homesteading; Building a sod house
526 – Family history
540 – Midwives and medical care
578 – Good years and poor years for farming intermingled with family history and accounts of South Russia
734 – Account of her husband, Steve Schnell, and ranch life in South Dakota
943 – SIDE TWO
024 – Farming and ranching near Richardton
069 – Ranching during the 1930’s
130 – Running businesses in Richardton and Dickinson
154 – Her husband’s death and her subsequent life
178 – Education
190 – Reflections on her life
207 – Account of Ray Schnell and family history
360 – Wildlife in the area during the early 20th century; Hunting rattlesnakes
414 – Morale during hard times
494 – Education
522 – Leading families of early Richardton; Prices of clothing
593 – Nationalities in the area
702 – Location of their ranch in South Dakota and towns in that area
720 – Anecdote concerning a trip to see a Charlie Chaplin movie
825 – Description of early Lemmon, South Dakota
845 – Observations on modern society
885 – End of interview

Tape #8 Miss Matilda Stoxen
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
077 – Schools attended by Miss Stoxen in the Taylor, ND area
112 – Family history
135 – Problems that beset Dickinson State College during the 1930’s
248 – Origin of library courses at Dickinson State
268 – Reflections on life in North Dakota
282 – Conditions in the Taylor area during the 1930’s
298 – Families that developed Taylor
334 – End of interview

Tape #9 Mr. Bill Bloom
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history and homesteading
144 – Other homesteaders in the area of Taylor
165 – Land use during the late 18th and early 19th centuries
188 – Family history
202 – Woodcut area near Taylor; Erecting buildings
250 – Weather conditions in 1880’s and 1890’s
279 – Fuel sources; Mining coal
295 – Family history
337 – Education
360 – Early settlers and nationalities in the area
380 – Large landowners in the area
409 – Poor crop years; The 1930’s
445 – Blacksmith work
460 – Threshing and early farming methods in general
525 – Food and poor crop years
590 – Raising livestock and dairy farming
640 – Farming during the 1930’s
741 – Soil conservation programs; Land use
791 – Morale during the Depression
807 – Politics; William Langer
838 – Farmers Union and farm organizations
885 – Social life and recreation; Baseball
929 – Early history of Taylor
941 – SIDE TWO
941 – General conversation
949 – Richardton Abbey
956 – Early families in Taylor
972 – Flour mills in the area and self-sufficiency on early farms
985 – Sources of water in the area
013 – Obtaining hay during dry years
052 – Early dairy farming
075 – Generating electricity
094 – Early telephone system in Taylor area
114 – His grandfather’s woodworking
128 – Anecdote on family history
168 – Home remedies for illnesses
189 – Ordering goods from catalogs
215 – End of interview

Tape #10 Mr. Zeno Muggli
000 – Introduction
020 – Personal history
031 – Early combines
039 – History of Muggli’s flour mill in Richardton
211 – Personal history and account of early Richardton
241 – Account of other small towns in the area
258 – Leading families in early Richardton
273 – Effect of Assumption Abbey on Richardton and account of Bishop Wehrli
303 – Brick works at the abbey
318 – Early coal mines in the area
365 – Account of early Glen Ullin and the steam power plant for the flour mill there
569 – Farm machinery in the 1920’s and 1930’s
650 – Farming during the 1930’s and discussion on changing farm methods
843 – Soil conservation programs and farmers’ resistance to new methods; His opinion of government farm programs
930 – Thoughts on North Dakota
946 – Growing certified seed and treating seed for planting
997 – Comparisons of peoples’ attitudes, past and present
028 – Community life in Richardton
042 – Religious life, past and present
065 – Thoughts on contemporary America
194 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview is most applicable to the 1920’s and 1930’s.  Mr. Muggli was a progressive farmer during that period and his farming methods, the crops he raised, and the machinery he used was unique in the Richardton area.  His detailed description of early flour mills is an outstanding portion of this tape.

Tape #11 Mr. and Mrs. Anders Hagburg
TAPE A
000 – Introduction
020 – Mrs. Hagburg’s family history and her father’s travels in 19th century North Dakota
100 – History of early Gladstone
115 – Early settlers in the area
154 – Mrs. Hagburg’s father’s homestead and farm
180 – Mr. Hagburg’s family history intermingled with history of the Gladstone area and early settlers; The Christian Colony at Gladstone
434 – Account of Mr. Hagburg’s father, his work on the railroad, and his homestead; The Gladstone flour mill
510 – hanging of the family name from Anderson to Hagburg upon arrival in the United States
560 – His father’s farm; Leasing land from the railroad; Family history
640 – History of Gladstone, Regent, and Horseville
725 – SIDE TWO
728 – The decline of Gladstone
743 – Large horse ranches in the area prior to settlement of farmers
828 – Purchase of railroad land by early settlers
840 – Growing alfalfa in early 1900’s
877 – Size of average farm in 1910 compared to 1974
915 – Description of land, farms, and nationalities in the area
934 – Gladstone creamery; Selling butter
020 – Anecdote on making butter
066 – Milking cows
186 – Coal mining by farmers in the area
137 – The Lehigh coal mines and miners; Other mines in the area
278 – His father’s dray business
330 – Horseville and other former towns in the Gladstone area
399 – Water sources in the area
451 – End of Tape A
TAPE B
000 – Introduction
020 – Their education; Schooling
097 – His work as telegraph operator for the railroad
122 – Account of “Big Daddy” Birdsill and the Birdsill ranch and businesses
275 – Prominent ranchers and businessmen in the area
298 – Herding and driving cattle; The Birdsill ranch
343 – Farming during the Depression
377 – Hired men
390 – Haying with horses
438 – Their morale during the Depression
486 – Grasshoppers during the 1930’s; Loss of their farm
546 – Social life in early Gladstone
688 – Railroad passenger service in the 1920’s
752 – Social life in early Gladstone
816 – Religious activities and churches in the area
886 – Winter sports in the area
932 – SIDE TWO
935 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently
002 – Baseball games in Gladstone and surrounding towns
168 – Conversation on Garrison Dam
177 – Politics; The Nonpartisan League and the Independent Voters Association
239 – A. C. Townley and his oil drilling business
275 – William Langer
410 – Development of electrical, natural gas, and telephone service in Gladstone
455 – Mr. Hagburg’s work as postmaster and for Montana-Dakota utilities
473 – General conversation on their lives
490 – Account of the Gladstone Rustler, a local newspaper
524 – Popular newspapers and magazines in the early years
552 – Ordering from catalogs during early years; Railroad freight service
618 – Their income and expenditures in early years; Cost of their house
712 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview is an excellent source of information on the early history of Gladstone and the surrounding area.  Portions on family history, early settlement of the area, railroads, and social life are quite detailed.

Tape #12 Mr. Fred Birdsall and Mr. E. D. Culver
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
050 – Bad winters during the late 19th century
065 – His father’s ranch (Birdsall ranch) and horse raising intermingled with early history of the area
097 – Family history
155 – His (Birdsall’s) father’s ranch and raising horses
393 – Other horse ranchers in the area
487 – Saddle horses
543 – Location and description of Birdsall’s father’s horse ranch
557 – Early New Leipzig; Railroad camps
630 – Family history
686 – The Paddock ranch
707 – The Birdsall elevator business and bank in New Leipzig
927 – Bank failures in New Leipzig
951 – SIDE TWO
982 – Birdsall’s education
997 – Account of Joe Birdsall
007 – Birdsall elevators; Grain business; Hauling grain with horses
102 – Farmers’ discontent at grain prices; Fairness of elevator operators
140 – Railroad service to elevators
153 – Government farm programs
180 – The Minneapolis grain exchange
240 – Grain varieties from 1915-1940’s
325 – Agricultural land use, formerly and presently
394 – William Langer’s early political career and terms as governor
458 – Box car shortages during harvest
491 – Opinion of farm organizations
526 – Mr. E.D. Culver begins; A. C. Townley, Joe Berton and the early Nonpartisan League intermingled with some general conversation
657 – E.D. Culver’s father’s service in the Civil War
692 – Popular dislike of socialism in the early 1900’s
723 – Organizing for the NPL intermingled with account of getting electricity and telephone service
820 – Culver’s terms in the North Dakota Legislature
900 – End of interview
Comment:  The most informative portions of this interview deal with the Birdsall horse ranch, elevators, and bank.  Accounts of the horse ranch are particularly valuable and contain several anecdotes on raising, breaking, and selling horses. 

Tape #13 Mr. Bill Beaudoin
000 – Introduction
020 – Anecdote on his childhood
043 – Family history; His childhood
115 – Hard times; Eating gophers and rabbits
196 – Family history
240 – His first farm; Farming
333 – Anecdote on cutting his neighbor’s hay
370 – Rustling cattle
400 – Problems of opening and operating a bar in Belfield
600 – The 1930’s; Hard times
641 – Bootlegging during prohibition; Account of his bullet wounds
739 – SIDE TWO
985 – Recollections of people in the Belfield area
030 – Prostitution in Belfield prior to 1940
063 – Horse and cattle rustlers
108 – Gambling; Quitting farming; Buying and selling land
191 – His bar and businesses in Dickinson
251 – Morale during the 1930’s; Hard times
310 – Return of better times in 1940
326 – Bill Langer and the Nonpartisan League in the 1930’s and 1940’s
474 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview contains many anecdotes on bootlegging, cattle rustling, and economic adversity.  Mr. Beaudoin did not hesitate to describe his involvement in a number of illegal activities.  His experiences and his manner of recounting events, as well as his salty language, make this a singular interview.

Tape #14 Mrs. Mae Leonard
(This interview applies mainly to Slope County)
000 – Introduction
019 – General conversation
028 – Family history
111 – Her first husband and their homestead
130 – Early Amidon
152 – The Golden Valley Manor in Beach
163 – Her work as a midwife
235 – General conversation
333 – Midwives in the Amidon area
570 – Early settlers in the Amidon area; Life on the homestead
658 – General conversation
690 – Travel from Iowa to North Dakota in an immigrant car
697 – SIDE TWO
716 – Homesteading; Hardships
830 – General conversation on her health
852 – End of interview
Comment:  The most valuable portion of this tape deals with Mrs. Leonard’s experiences as a midwife. 

Tape #15 Mrs. Isabella Schoch
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; South Russia
072 – Her parent’s homestead
080 – Her husband and their homestead
085 – Her work in a Dickinson hotel prior to marriage
114 – First impressions of North Dakota
122 – Hardships of farming
130 – Courtship and marriage; Her children
148 – Nationalities in the Sheffield area
166 – Her husband’s homestead and their stone farm buildings
206 – Sources of fuel – Wood, manure, mining coal
245 – Raising livestock
256 – Hardships of farming; Poor crop years
272 – Her children; Childbirth and midwives
295 – Her schooling in Russia
316 – Education of her children
327 – Sources of income on their farm
334 – The New England-Sheffield area; Schools and churches
375 – The flu epidemic of 1918; Home remedies for illness
408 – Expanding their farm; Her husband
444 – Her health
456 – Making a living during the 1930’s
496 – Neighborliness of people in former years
518 – Medical doctors in the area during early years
536 – Bill Langer; Her apathy toward politics
552 – Threshing with a horsepower threshing machine
584 – Gardening; Preserving food
655 – Thoughts on modern society
683 – End of interview
Comment:  This interview contains some general information on homesteading and pioneer life.  Mrs. Schoch’s responses to questions tended to be brief.  Her recollections of South Russia, the flu epidemic of 1918, and construction of stone farm buildings comprise the most informative portions of this interview.

Tape #17 Mr. and Mrs. Gus Fuchere
000 – Introduction
019 – Poor crop years and bad winters
042 – Family history
072 – History of the French settlement south of Belfield intermingled with family history
150 – Childhood memories of family life
172 – His father’s farm and horsepower well drilling rig
230 – His well drilling business; Includes anecdotes about blasting with dynamite
320 – Finding underground water; Hitting coal veins; Horsepower well drilling rig
390 – Water witching
555 – The mechanics of well drilling
568 – Large cattle and sheep ranches south of Belfield in the early 1900’s
630 – Size of the average farm in the Belfield area in the 1920’s
666 – Their children
699 – SIDE TWO
701 – Working on government projects during the 1930’s
775 – Hard times during the 1920’s
820 – Dust storms during dry years; Modern farming methods
843 – Soil conservation programs and improved grain varieties
869 – Early towns and stores in the Belfield area
881 – Flour mill in Belfield
897 – Early gas tractors
915 – Breaking sod with a steam engine rig
945 – Local coal mines
965 – Threshing
020 – Departure of the French settlers near Belfield and nationalities that replaced them
030 – Population loss during the 1930’s
039 – Bill Langer and the Nonpartisan League
050 – Farm foreclosures during the 1930’s
077 – Lawlessness in early Belfield; Rodeos; Saloons
155 – Early Belfield
242 – Neighborliness of people, formerly and presently
261 – The Farmers Union
282 – Neighborliness of people in former years
326 – Obtaining electricity and telephone service
396 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Fuchere’s recollections of drilling water wells and the French settlement near Belfield are probably the informative and entertaining portions of this interview.

Tape #18 Mrs. Anna Huschka
000 – Introduction
020 – Her childhood; Family history
050 – Her work on the farm
071 – Family history
114 – Planting and weeding corn prior to mechanization
156 – Family history
191 – Bad winters
204 – Her parent’s homestead; Constructing stone farm buildings
335 – Sources of fuel; Coal
345 – Her parent’s move to town and back to farm
388 – Her education at a rural school
444 – Nationalities and early settlers in the area southeast of Dickinson
465 – Eye troubles in their family and early medical care
590 – Selling butter and eggs in Dickinson; Her work at the Ray Hotel in Dickinson
680 – Her father’s personality and philosophy
720 – Supplies for homestead purchased in Dickinson; Her first experience in depositing money in a bank
793 – Marriage and her husband’s family history
849- Her arranged marriage and her husband’s alcoholism
901 – Married life on their farm; Description of their home furnishings; Their children
947 – SIDE TWO
949 – Childbirth and midwives
969 – Conversation on her photographs
047 – Observations on religious faith
089 – Farms she and her husband operated
120 – Raising a family on the farm in the 1930’s; Hard times
161 – Her morale and their sources of income on the farm during the 1930’s
248 – Gardening during the 1930’s and in general
281 – Preserving food
352 – Self-sufficiency during the 1930’s
367 – Her children’s education and her recent life
425 – Federal Land Bank Loans during the 1930’s; Her opinion of politics
480 – Churches she attended and priests she recalled
514 – Present family problems
576 – Obtaining electricity in 1948
585 – Gasoline powered washing machines
596 – Telephone service
605 – Flu epidemic of 1918
728 – Home remedies for illness; Early medical care
893 – End of interview
Comment:  Mrs. Huschka has a remarkably good memory.  She is articulate and frank.  This is an excellent interview on homesteading and farm life.

Tape #19 Mrs. Josephine Dietz
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Life in South Russia
056 – Her parent’s homestead
070 – Constructing stone buildings
083 – Homesteading
095 – Her marriage; Their farm; Her recent life
142 – Her children; Midwives
168 – Nationalities in the Belfield area
194 – Their farm; Selling cows
223 – Threshing
240 – Education of her children
263 – Making a living during the 1930’s
279 – Flu epidemic of 1918
288 – Making clothes
323 – Her son’s service in World War I
335 – Raising and selling poultry
400 – Her arranged marriage
427 – Work done together by neighbors
456 – Social life and entertainment
515 – Making a living during the 1930’s
531 – Gardening and preserving food
543 – Sources of water
575 – Fuel sources; Local coal mining by farmers
603 – Thoughts on contemporary society
633 – Recollections of parish priests; Religion
687 – South Russia
694 – End of interview
Comment:  Mrs. Dietz did not expand upon nor detail specifics on the above topics.  Family history and general recollections comprise the major part of this tape.

Tape #20 Mr. Alphonse Dorval
TAPE A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
051 – His schooling
060 – Family history
066 – His father’s first farm near Fargo and homestead near Belfield
090 – Family history and homesteading near Belfield
137 – His father’s farming operation; Steam engines; Threshing
330 – Early gas tractors
375 – Plowing and threshing with a steam engine
545 – Early gas tractors
570 – Seeding and cutting grain with horses
600 – Raising horses; Farming with horses
698 – End of Tape A
TAPE B
000 – Blank
334 – A. C. Townley and his oil-drilling scheme
364 – Bill Langer and the Nonpartisan League
379 – WPA projects in the Belfield area
404 – Dust storms; Grasshoppers; The 1930’s
431 – Obtaining electricity
456 – Telephone service since 1910
489 – The Farmers Union
525 – Social life and entertainment
614 – Bootlegging and sale of illegal liquor in Belfield
721 – Thoughts on contemporary society and larger scale farming
846 – Thoughts on North Dakota
875 – End of interview
Comment:  The most informative and detailed portions of this interview concern threshing and plowing with steam power.

Tape #21 Mr. Phillip Kessel
TAPE A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
182 – Rural school in the area
191 – His mother’s homestead
208 – Nationalities in the area
221 – Early towns in the area where he sold grain
248 – Family history
260 – Early settlers in the area
310 – Farming with horses and oxen
323 – Homesteading; Breaking sod; Raising livestock
338 – Open range
347 – Sources of water
381 – Sources of fuel; Local coal mining
411 – Decline of large ranches during homestead boom
439 – Farming in general; Threshing
588 – Enlarging his farm
635 – Good and poor crop years prior to the 1930’s
658 – Service in World War I
675 – Raising cattle in the badlands
732 – His machinery business in the 1930’s; The 1930’s in general
808 – Bill Langer, A. C. Townley, and the Nonpartisan League
861 – Activities of the Farm Holiday Association
929 – End of Tape A
TAPE B
000 – Introduction
020 – Early Belfield; Nationalities in the town
131 – The O’Connor family in Belfield
158 – First appearance of automobiles in the area
174 – Early telephone service
204 – WPA projects in the area
234 – Farm and soil conservation programs; New seed varieties; Changes in farming methods
382 – Social life and entertainment
500 – Bootlegging and local moonshiners
580 – Early churches
592 – General conversation
619 – His wife’s family history
655 – Courtship and marriage
688 – Flu epidemic of 1918; Early doctors and medical care
727 – SIDE TWO
768 – Home remedies for illness; Midwives
819 – Making clothes from flour sacks
839 – Neighborliness of people and family life, formerly and presently
859 – Social life and entertainment
879 – Reflections on North Dakota
886 – Thoughts on coal gasification
914 – Changes caused by development of oil wells
925 – Anecdote on clothes made from flour sacks
943 – Making lye soap
953 – Appearance of the Belfield area prior to extensive settlement
024 – Harsh winter of 1904-1905; Loss of livestock
086 – Anecdote about bootlegging
112 – Anecdote about a neighbor
149 – Settlers from Holland in the area during the early 1900’s
227 – Bank failures in Belfield in the 1920’s and 1930’s
250 – The Lefor family and their bank
296 – Use of their house as a hospital during the 1920’s
341 – Negro cowboys in the Belfield area
403 – Hardships of Ukrainian settlers in the area
445 – Wildlife in the area during the early 1900’s
455 – End of interview
Comment:  This is an informative interview on the history of the Belfield area.  Mr. Kessel has a good memory and enjoys telling anecdotes.

Tape #22 Mr. and Mrs. Louis Gullickson
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; His father’s ranch north of Taylor, ND
161 – Appearance of the area prior to extensive settlement
172 – Grazing cattle on the open range
187 – Ranching; Wintering cattle
206 – Prairie fires
235 – Her father’s hotel and saloon in Taylor
245 – Fighting prairie fires
280 – His father’s sod house on the ranch
300 – His father’s hotel and saloon; Blind pig saloons in the county
344 – Businesses and churches sin early Taylor
415 – Nationalities that settled in the Taylor area
427 – Social life and entertainment; Dances
532 – Cattle stampedes
557 – character of early cowboys and sheepherders in Montana
635 – Sheep ranchers and sheepherders (applies mainly to Montana)
697 – His homestead near Taylor
725 – SIDE TWO
740 – Account of and early rancher near Taylor (H.B. Shatner)
815 – Cattle rustling
869 – Good crop years
887 – World War I
911 – Threshing with a horsepower rig
003 – Cooking for threshing crews
020 – Plowing with steam engines
030 – Requirements for homesteading and tree claims
055 – Schooling
083 – Anecdote on being thrown from a horse
169 – The Nonpartisan League and opposition to it in the area
182 – Farming during the 1930’s
290 – Emigration during the 1930’s
320 – Fuel sources; Local coal mining
360 – Lighting prior to electricity
409 – First radio and phonograph they remember hearing
451 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. Gullickson is a good story teller and his anecdotes are colorful.  Regarding historical information, portions of the tape dealing with travel to North Dakota, life on early ranches, and threshing with horsepower are the most informative.

Tape #23 Pete Dassinger (Gladstone)
000 – Introduction
025 – Family history; Father homesteads; Price of land and horses; Father begins farming
125 – First building; Houses and material; Fuel; Coal mines
235 – Miners; Mining; Threshing
339 – Farming methods; Crops; Homesteaders; Town when a child
448 – Social life; Religion; Nationalities
509 – Education; Textbooks
600 – Begins farming; World War I; Crops
698 – Flour mill; Dry 1930’s; Thistles for stock feeding
826 – Town during 1930’s
835 – End of interview

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